.. tors were getting huge contracts from the Government. The United States was beginning to come out of the Depression. (p. 494-495 A World At Arms).
Comment – When more job opportunities became available, and wages were higher, Americans were starting to enjoy a higher standard of living. They were starting to believe that the economy was starting to get better. Mothers and Grandmothers working on assembly lines would pack holiday treats in special parcels for the POWs. They believed that men overseas would receive the boxes which contained 11 pounds of staples and delicacies. The contents were very carefully placed into a space 10 by 10 by 4 1/2 inches. Many of them working on the assembly line were relatives of the prisoners.
the volunteers would pack 600,000 parcel boxes per month not knowing their true destination. (p. 191-197 The Neutrals World War II). Comment – These women were very devoted to their men in the war. Even though the women did not really know the destination of the packages, they truly believed the men would receive the boxes filled with goodies.
f. W.W.I – It was the epoch of incredulity When the United States entered the war, the allies stood in disbelief that they could win. They were afraid of failure and of losing the war. Fighting the Western Front had become boring–By the time America entered the war, Germany and France had displayed a great loss of their armies at the Western Front. The American Army thought the war would last forever.
(p. 13-15, Woodrow Wilson and World War I 1917-1921). Comment – This displayed an epoch of incredulity because the American Army could not imagine winning a war that already displayed much blood shed. America felt their government could have avoided war, and that the war should somehow avoid America. The majority of Americans favored peace.
Protests came from all parts of the country. However it became evident after the Germans sank the Lusitania and made threats to start unrestricted submarine warfare, President Wilson changed the public position to go ahead and participate in the war. The American people were bewildered over the decision, however President Wilson announced that our own fortunes as a nation are involved and we now have no choice. (p. 1-12, Woodrow Wilson and World War I 1917-1921).
Comment – The people were bewildered and in denial that President Wilson announced America’s participation in the war. f. W.W.II. – It was the epoch of incredulity Throughout the United States news of the war brought stunned disbelief and outrage. Even the American newspapers were printing that the prospect of war with Japan was remote.
Some radio stations were broadcasting that the invasion was on its way. Irate and unbelieving callers were jamming the switchboard trying to find out more information. People on the New York’s Time Square were shouting angrily saying, We’re going to get them for this. (p. 140 The World At Arms) Comment – This was a good example of the epoch of incredulity because so many Americans refused to believe they were now at war with Japan. They could not accept that America was invaded. Edgar Hoover ordered that all Japanese-Americans needed to be rounded up in the USA. During a baseball game between Paramount studio team and a Japanese team, the FBI agents started arresting the Japanese.
Many of California’s Americans that were of Japanese decent quickly sent the White House telegrams denouncing Japan’s actions. In spite of the denouncement, all Japanese-Americans were rounded up anyway under an order signed by President Roosevelt in February, 1942. (p. 140, The World At Arms). Comment – Americans, especially those with Japanese decent, were stunned that they were being imprisoned because of the invasion.
The Japanese-Americans were in denial, and did not believe that Japan had intentions to invade Pearl Harbor and cause so much destruction to the American people. g. W.W.I – It was the season of hope While the war was going on, the President of the United States dreamed of a Peace Conference where he would bring peace to all the American people. He felt his country’s aims were different from those of his allies, and he avoided arguments over this issue. The President hoped to hold the allies economically and militarily in his hand once the war was over.
(p. 135-136, Woodrow Wilson and World War I 1917-1921). Comment – This was a season of hope because President Wilson was moved by his feelings to bring peace to the American people. He hoped to end the war for the sake of our country. In 1919, President Wilson suffered a stroke.
He had many problems that followed his stroke for years to come. In spite of his illness and stubbornness, he held on to his covenants and would not make any revisions to the Peace Treaty. Several members from the League of Nations opposed his ideas, however President Wilson knew what the American people needed to regain peace and protect their future. (p. 156-177, Woodrow Wilson and World War I 1917-1921). Comment – The President extended much hope to the American people by not changing his views before signing the Peace Treaty.
America put their trust in his views. g. W.W.II. – It was the season of hope The Japanese attack brought unity between the Americans. Before the attack the United States was a nation bitterly divided. Two groups, one led by Roosevelt, and the other led by the American First Committee, were now united as never seen before.
Labor leaders soon called off strikes and union members would work around the clock if it was necessary. (p. 140-141 The World At Arms.) Comment – It was a season of hope because the Japanese attack brought Americans closer together. It brought much hope for the future of America. Americans were now anxious to help each other in a time of crisis The wartime efforts brought many advances for blacks and women. The outcome of the war proved that blacks and women had the same capabilities as white men.
The war showed they had just as much ability working as veterans and civil workers as did all humans, white or black, and even women. The war also brought many benefits to veterans and their families. They could now receive bonus payments, pensions, medical services, and the GI Bill of Rights. The GI Bill helped provide educational benefits. Veterans could now expand their education and receive home loan entitlements. Many more families could now purchase their own home.
(p. 493-497 A World At Arms) Comment – Having blacks and women in the work force or military was a season of hope for America because it liberated those that were once discriminated against. It brought more hope for the military by having more people to help out in the war. It helped fill factories with more needed laborers, and it lessened discrimination. The GI Bill of Rights gave much hope to families wanting to expand their education or own a home.
h. W.W.I. – It was the season of darkness In the spring of 1918, the Americans realized that a massive American army would be sent overseas. The news complicated industrial production which extended to railroads tie ups and shortages of supplies, such as coal and food. Everything was a mess and it sent people into a panic. (p.
100-105, Woodrow Wilson and World War I 1917-1921). Comment – This was a season of darkness because America would now lose several men, many of them who supported their families, who were drafted into the war. The lack of planning before entering the war caused a fuel shortage. The Fuel Administration placed maximum prices on fuel. Unfortunately the winter in 1917 was the coldest in fifty years, which hampered transporting fuel to the factories.
America was ordered to have heatless Mondays for several weeks. The American people were angry and accused President Wilson of letting industrial mobilization slip from his hands. (p. 98-106, Woodrow Wilson and World War I 1917-1921). Comment – Having no fuel, or not enough, for heat or other sources gave the people a feeling of hopelessness not knowing if the situation would change or become worse.
h. W.W.II. – It was a season of darkness Some men were required to take over the mothering chores while women were becoming liberated in the work force. Because of labor shortages, it became necessary for women to work outside the home in factories, or provide volunteer services for the war. Before the war, capable baby-sitters were easy to find.
If the parents didn’t take turn with the child-care, then inexperienced baby-sitters were all that could be found. (p. 188-189 Life Goes to War) Comment – It was a season of darkness for families that had to depend on strangers to care for their children while they went off to work. Most families did not chose to hire inexperienced child-care or young girls to care for their children but they had no choice because families needed to make a living. Many mistakes and squabbles would slow down the war efforts. There was a bitter legacy of race riots in cities such as Detroit.
Blacks and whites would maul and murder each other. The racism and labor disputes caused a troublesome setback in the war. The US Government was criticized by reporters for not exhausting all legal efforts to end the war, but instead resorted to violence. (p. 194-195 Life Goes to War).
Comment – Not taking care of the racism when the war was continuing was a season of darkness for America. It only caused war at home as well as overseas. It caused too many setbacks for America. More lives might have been saved if the Government had taken care of the problem sooner. I.
W.W.I. – We had everything before us Before the war, President Wilson was re-elected as President in April, 1917; the soldiers and marines stood at attention while thousands of citizens waved their little flags. They chanted He kept us out of war. When the United States finally became involved in the war, the people were unsure of their security and safety for the future. (p. 1-4, Woodrow Wilson and World War I 1917-1921).
Comment – This shows that the American people felt secure and safe, and they had everything before the war. They thought they were exempt from entering the war. Before the war, foreign trade had increased. Imports and Exports were at 188 million. The economy was doing extremely well, and trade with the allies was markedly up.
Americans were raising their standard of living. (p. 1-8, Woodrow Wilson and World War I 1917-1921). Comment – Before the war the Americans had their good economy and an abundance of supplies to enjoy. i.
W.W.II – We had everything before us Much like W.W.I., many women were becoming widows during W.W.II. Before the war, wives had their husbands to help support and take care of the family. Children were now left without the influence and support of a father. It became necessary for women to find work. Many of these women would put in long tiring hours trying to make a living for their families.
Some women could make a good living working, but those who remained at home with the children were struggling without their husband’s earnings. Many women would live with other families to help consolidate the bills. (p. 138-139 Life Goes to War) Comment – Before the war, women had the luxury of staying home with their children, and they had the companionship of a husband. Several women were now forced to find employment, or live with other families just to pay the bills. Some women and their children would have to live together in a single house or apartment just to help make ends meet. Overcrowding was a real problem, but they would share the rent, split weekly food bills, and rotate housekeeping chores.
This living arrangement was called tripling up. This arrangement allowed them to save enough money to by war bonds. (p. 138-139 Life Goes To War). Comment – Families had everything before them prior to the war. They had their own families to contend with.
Those women who lost their husbands in the war did not have as much income coming in to support a family. Women, and their children, had to learn how to get along living together, and sharing the expenses and chores. j. W.W.I – We had nothing before us Before World War I, veterans had adjust by themselves to civil life without any relief from the Government. The war brought Congress to pass the GI Bill of Rights, which offered veterans college and university education. This in many ways helped change their lives.
(p 231-234, Woodrow Wilson and World War I 1917-1921). Comment – Before the war, veterans had nothing to fall back on for support. The GI Bill of Rights was a positive outcome of the war. Before W.W.I, America’s armed forces were not adequately equipped with weapons and manpower. Many changes were made, and the armed forces went from a small army to a massive army–ready to defend their country in any future attacks or threats. (p 235, Woodrow Wilson and World War I 1917-1921). Comment – This shows that before W.W.I., America did not have dependable armed forces.
W.W.I. brought a very needed change in the protection of the country. j. W.W.II. – We had nothing before us Before the war, women generally did not work outside of the home.
Women were not even considered to serve in the war. The war brought liberation to women. The war was now forcing society to see women in the service or work force as acceptable. Women in the work force went from 1 percent in 1941 to 65 percent in 1943. Because of shortages in the working industry, and in war efforts, women were now being hired for employment or to serve in the military service. Traditionally, women were barred from working in wartime production, however women were soon learning they were just as capable of performing the same tasks as the men. (p.
140-145 Life Goes to War) Comment – Before the war women were not as liberated. Women were now enjoying their independence as never before. Women felt before the war they did not have the same rights as the men when it came to employment, or serving in the military. Liberation was replacing discrimination and giving them the freedom they could Bibliography Bibliography Charles Messinger, Atlas of World War Two, Macmillan Publishing New York. Errol Selkirk, World War Two For Beginners, Writers and Readers Publishing 1975. Philip J. Haythorn, Photohistory of World War One, Arms and Armour Publishing.
Trish Marx, Over There, Lerner Publishing Company Minneapolis, Minnesota. David E. Scherman, Time Life Books, Little Brown and Company Toronto Books. David E. Scherman, Life Goes To War, Little Brown and Company Toronto Books.
Anthony Livesey, Great Battles of World War Two, Macmillan Publishing New York. Gerhard L. Weinberg, A World At Arms, Cambridge University Press. Michael Wright, The Last Act, The Reader’s Digest Association. Dennis J. Fodor, The Neutrals World War Two, Time Life Publishing.
Richard Goldstein, Woodrow Wilson and World War One, Dell Publishing Group. Anthony Livesey, Great Battles of World War Two, Macmillan Publishing Company New York. Grolier Encyclopedias 1996, Grolier Encyclopedia United Nations and League of Nations. Political Issues.