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The Schlieffen Plan

.. e development of the war as well. If the Director of the German Armies would have followed the Schlieffen Plan as it was written, communication would have been easier. The Plan might have also helped Germans to win the war. The German Army was better equipped, had more man power, and even a better strategic plan over the other countries.

However the lack of communication between the different divisions of the German Troops caused for a massive disadvantage. Bibliography Craig, Gordon A. Germany 1866-1945 New York: Oxford University Press, 1978. Ryder, A.J. Twentieth-Century Germany: From Bismarck to Brandt. New York:columbia University Press, 1973. Rosenburg, Dr.

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Arthur. The Birth of the German Republic. New York: Russell & Russell, Inc. 1962. Orlow, Dietrich. A History of Modern Germany: 1871-Present.

New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1995. Car, William. A History of Germany 1815-1945. New York: St. Martians Press, 1969. Gatzke, Hans W. Germanys Drive for the West.

Baltimore: The John Hopkins Press, 1950. Lyons, Michael J. World War I: A Short History. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2000. “1905 The Schlieffen Plan” The Army Quarterly (London), July (1929): 286-290.

Saleske, Herr Von Below. ” The German Request for Free Passage Through Belgium”, 2 August 1914. Davigion, M.(Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs). ” The Belgian Refusal of Free Passage”, 3 August 1914. Leman, General, “The Fall of Liege.” 11-15 August 1914.  Michael J Lyons, World War I, A Short History(New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2000), 54.

 The Schlieffen Plan In 1905, General Alfred von Schlieffen, who at that time was the Chief of the General Staff of Germany, developed a plan for war in Europe. He developed the plan in an attempt to prepare for the inevitable, a two front war with France and Russia. When he developed the plan he took in account all aspects of the many events that were occurring during that time. “Unfortunately, the plan would involve a violation of the International Agreement, signed by the Great Powers in 1839, guaranteeing Belgiums permanent neutrality.” Schlieffen believed that France would attempt to recover Alsace-Lorraine. He planned to draw the French into a major offensive battle in Alsace. While Frances attention was turned to that part of the country, 90% of the German Army would storm through Belgium and the Netherlands toward the South of Paris in a sweeping movement. This would allow the German forces to travel through the borders of Belgium, Netherlands, and the surrounding country side toward the South Paris, entrapping the French Army between the two German forces.

This would allow Germany to attack the French army from their weaker point in the rear. With the French Army engaged in war with the other 10% of the German Army, the French would not notice the Germans coming from the rear. The Germans coming form the rear would push the French forward, trapping them between the two German forces. William the Second, the Emperor of Germany, replaced General Schlieffen with Helmuth von Moltke, as the Chief of the General Staff of Germany in 1906. Moltke modified the Schlieffen Plan from the original version.

The Schlieffen Plan was a very engenus plan. The plan was devised for the German troops to be dispersed as follows: 1) 11 corps and 7 Reserve corps South of Namur 2) 6 corps and 1/2 Reserve corps through Mezieres 3) 8 corps and 5 Reserve corps through Verdun and Metz 4) 3 corps and 1 Reserve corps through Strasbourg This left no Reserves left to protect the countryside of Germany. Schlieffen had expected the German Army to be at least 41 1/2 Corp of troops by the time war would break out with France and Russia. He was counting on something that would not take place before war would break out. Moltke modified Schlieffens Plan for a reason.

The reason being that he believed that Germany did not have the man power for effective protection against invading countries. Moltke altered Schlieffens plan in 1914, as follows: 1) 8 corps and 5 Reserve corps South of Namur 2) 6 corps and 3 Reserve corps through Mezieres 3) 3 corps and 2 Reserve corps through Verdum and Metz 4) 4 corps and 1 Reserve Corp through Strasbourg 5) 2 corps and 1 Reserve Corp in Reserve. In the revised Schlieffen Plan, Moltke would abandon the territory of Alsace-Lorraine if the Italian government did not show up to help. The Italian Chief of Staff, General Pollio, had promised that his Italian troops would help the Germans. Until his death in 1914, General Pollio had assured Moltke the Italian Army would occupy Alsace-Lorraine.

Moltke felt that it was necessary to hold that Province with the two corps. If the Italians did not appear then the question would arise how would the German Army get to Alsace-Lorraine in time to defend the region. The French attack was directed toward Mulhausen, which delayed German troops transport to the right wing of the attack. As the Schlieffen plan was drawn up, Russia was still in a weakened state due to the Manchurian War. Russia was still behind the times of regular army operations.

They had man power no question about it. However, man power does not make an army great, the leaders and the common sense of the Delegation make the army great. If the Russian Army had sufficient resources, the German Army would have not only had to fight the French, they would have also had to fight on the Russian border. This would have made the Schlieffen Plan just a passing thought because there would have not been enough German troops to carry it through. Russia would have needed the weaponry and a decent mean by which to deploy their troops with the right amount of equipment to defend themselves.

Moltke not only altered the Schlieffen Plan militarily, but politically as well. In the Schlieffen Plan there was not an ultimatum given to Belgium. Moltke thought it was necessary. In the original plan, German troops were to deploy without any notifications, into the Dutch-Belgium border. The plan counted on the French Army to deploy their troops into the Meuse Valley, which is located south of Namur as a counter-measure.

However by taking this action the French Army would be in violation of their agreement with Belgium and Belgiums neutrality. The Germans hoped that the French troops would plan to take over the natural defenses of the Meuse Valley which would have made France be the first to violate the agreement of Belgium to stay neutral. In 1914 the German troops advanced into the Meuse Valley, by that advancement the German troops were the first to actually violate Belgiums neutrality. By this action the British became involved because they were allies with Belgium. The Schlieffen plan according to Schlieffen was not to break Belgiums neutrality. The first town to be taken by the German troops was Liege, Belgium. Germany wanted to take Liege with the idea of coup de main, which means to take without artillery support, during the mobilization of German troops along the border.

The German army asked the Netherlands Government for the right of passage through the Dutch Providence of Limburg, to pass North of Liege. Moltke did not think that the Dutch government would allow him and his troops the right of passage across the territory. The reasoning behind Moltke wanting to pass north of Liege was to position his troops to take Liege over. Even though Moltke had wanted to take Liege under coup de main that did not occur, artillery had to be used in an attempt to prevent a delay in the advancement of his forces. The Schlieffen Plan had a 42 day dead line. By taking Liege, Moltke and troops were behind time by nine days.

General von Kluck, who led the right wing, was to take his troops through the Netherlands and go to Brussels and use it as a turning point to had south. Already through Belgium, von Kluck marched ahead of General Bulows forces, thus exposing his right flank. Von Kluck had to hold up and let General Bulows forces catch up. This action allowed the French and British forces to stop retreating and set up a defense. The French and the British “dug in” and what is known as trench warfare began. A projected four month was than took a turn for the worse and became a prolonged four year war. Germany needed to stay with the basic design of the Schlieffen Plan.

The time factor was a key factor of the plan. A short time span would not have given the opposing armies the time to fortify their positions. Better communications between the German army divisions would have played a major part in the development of the war as well. If the Director of the German Armies would have followed the Schlieffen Plan as it was written, communication would have been easier. The Plan might have also helped Germans to win the war.

The German Army was better equipped, had more man power, and even a better strategic plan over the other countries. However the lack of communication between the different divisions of the German Troops caused for a massive disadvantage. Bibliography Craig, Gordon A. Germany 1866-1945 New York: Oxford University Press, 1978. Ryder, A.J. Twentieth-Century Germany: From Bismarck to Brandt.

New York:columbia University Press, 1973. Rosenburg, Dr. Arthur. The Birth of the German Republic. New York: Russell & Russell, Inc. 1962. Orlow, The Schlieffen Plan In 1905, General Alfred von Schlieffen, who at that time was the Chief of the General Staff of Germany, developed a plan for war in Europe.

He developed the plan in an attempt to prepare for the inevitable, a two front war with France and Russia. When he developed the plan he took in account all aspects of the many events that were occurring during that time. “Unfortunately, the plan would involve a violation of the International Agreement, signed by the Great Powers in 1839, guaranteeing Belgiums permanent neutrality.” Schlieffen believed that France would attempt to recover Alsace-Lorraine. He planned to draw the French into a major offensive battle in Alsace. While Frances attention was turned to that part of the country, 90% of the German Army would storm through Belgium and the Netherlands toward the South of Paris in a sweeping movement. This would allow the German forces to travel through the borders of Belgium, Netherlands, and the surrounding country side toward the South Paris, entrapping the French Army between the two German forces. This would allow Germany to attack the French army from their weaker point in the rear.

With the French Army engaged in war with the other 10% of the German Army, the French would not notice the Germans coming from the rear. The Germans coming form the rear would push the French forward, trapping them between the two German forces. William the Second, the Emperor of Germany, replaced General Schlieffen with Helmuth von Moltke, as the Chief of the General Staff of Germany in 1906. Moltke modified the Schlieffen Plan from the original version. The Schlieffen Plan was a very engenus plan.

The plan was devised for the German troops to be dispersed as follows: 1) 11 corps and 7 Reserve corps South of Namur 2) 6 corps and 1/2 Reserve corps through Mezieres 3) 8 corps and 5 Reserve corps through Verdun and Metz 4) 3 corps and 1 Reserve corps through Strasbourg This left no Reserves left to protect the countryside of Germany. Schlieffen had expected the German Army to be at least 41 1/2 Corp of troops by the time war would break out with France and Russia. He was counting on something that would not take place before war would break out. Moltke modified Schlieffens Plan for a reason. The reason being that he believed that Germany did not have the man power for effective protection against invading countries.

Moltke altered Schlieffens plan in 1914, as follows: 1) 8 corps and 5 Reserve corps South of Namur 2) 6 corps and 3 Reserve corps through Mezieres 3) 3 corps and 2 Reserve corps through Verdum and Metz 4) 4 corps and 1 Reserve Corp through Strasbourg 5) 2 corps and 1 Reserve Corp in Reserve. In the revised Schlieffen Plan, Moltke would abandon the territory of Alsace-Lorraine if the Italian government did not show up to help. The Italian Chief of Staff, General Pollio, had promised that his Italian troops would help the Germans. Until his death in 1914, General Pollio had assured Moltke the Italian Army would occupy Alsace-Lorraine. Moltke felt that it was necessary to hold that Province with the two corps.

If the Italians did not appear then the question would arise how would the German Army get to Alsace-Lorraine in time to defend the region. The French attack was directed toward Mulhausen, which delayed German troops transport to the right wing of the attack. As the Schlieffen plan was drawn up, Russia was still in a weakened state due to the Manchurian War. Russia was still behind the times of regular army operations. They had man power no question about it.

However, man power does not make an army great, the leaders and the common sense of the Delegation make the army great. If the Russian Army had sufficient resources, the German Army would have not only had to fight the French, they would have also had to fight on the Russian border. This would have made the Schlieffen Plan just a passing thought because there would have not been enough German troops to carry it through. Russia would have needed the weaponry and a decent mean by which to deploy their troops with the right amount of equipment to defend themselves. Moltke not only altered the Schlieffen Plan militarily, but politically as well.

In the Schlieffen Plan there was not an ultimatum given to Belgium. Moltke thought it was necessary. In the original plan, German troops were to deploy without any notifications, into the Dutch-Belgium border. The plan counted on the French Army to deploy their troops into the Meuse Valley, which is located south of Namur as a counter-measure. However by taking this action the French Army would be in violation of their agreement with Belgium and Belgiums neutrality. The Germans hoped that the French troops would plan to take over the natural defenses of the Meuse Valley which would have made France be the first to violate the agreement of Belgium to stay neutral.

In 1914 the German troops advanced into the Meuse Valley, by that advancement the German troops were the first to actually violate Belgiums neutrality. By this action the British became involved because they were allies with Belgium. The Schlieffen plan according to Schlieffen was not to break Belgiums neutrality. The first town to be taken by the German troops was Liege, Belgium. Germany wanted to take Liege with the idea of coup de main, which means to take without artillery support, during the mobilization of German troops along the border. The German army asked t.

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