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The Low Down On Caffiene

.. out that caffeine maybe a potential drug of abuse. Drug abuse is, in general terms, the use of an illicit substance. Its when one craves for something so bad that they will do anything to get. They are hooked on something for the effects. The reason that they want more is because they receive withdrawal symptoms (Kids Walmer).

Abrupt withdrawal of caffeine may cause headaches, drowsiness, irritability, nausea, vomiting, and other symptoms. Reduce caffeine intake will gradually to prevent any symptoms of withdrawal (Kids Walmar). In pioneering a study about withdrawal symptoms, Dreisbach and Pfeiffer (1943) observed that caffeine relieved headache withdrawal. People started relieving headaches with coffee, but then got withdrawal symptoms with coffee. In a well-controlled experiment, coffee drinkers who had been drinking coffee with caffeine for one week, preferred caffeine coffee (Caffeine Blues).

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Regular caffeine consumption reduces sensitivity to caffeine. When caffeine intake is reduced, the body becomes oversensitive to adenosine. In response to this oversensitiveness, blood pressure drops dramatically, causing an excess of blood in the head (though not necessarily on the brain), leading to a headache. There is no human requirement for caffeine in the diet. Moderate caffeine intake, however, is not associated with any health risk.

Three 8 oz. cups of coffee (250 milligrams of caffeine) per day is considered an average or moderate amount of caffeine. Ten 8 oz. cups of coffee per day is considered excessive intake of caffeine (Kids Walmar). A child’s caffeine consumption should be closely monitored. Although caffeine is safe to consume in moderation, it may negatively affect a child’s nutrition. Caffeinated beverages may be replacing nutrient dense foods such as fruit juices and milk.

A child may also eat less because caffeine acts as an appetite suppressant (Kids Walmar). Caffeine can be completely restricted in a child’s diet since there is no nutritional requirement for it. This may be necessary for a hyperactive child as caffeine is a central nervous stimulant (Caffeine Blues Cherniske). Caffeine can also affect pregnant women and other special cases. Pregnant women and people with coronary heart disease or peptic ulcers may be advised by their health care provider to restrict or avoid using caffeine (Chronic Temples). Like anything, there are two sides to the story. However, with research, one side ways heavily over the other. The negative affects caffeine is associated with push aside the few good affects.

From what was read so far, caffeine intake does more harm than good. Scientific Experiment I. Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to determine the affects of the compound caffeine (C8H10N4O2) on the human body relating to: a) If caffeine causes dependency; b) How caffeine affects our bodys nervous system; c) How caffeine affects our digestive system. II. Materials: 100 human subjects (no caffeine in body) 1800 10mg caffeine pills (20 subjects for 90 days) 1800 40mg caffeine pills (20 subjects for 90 days) 1800 70mg caffeine pills (20 subjects for 90 days) 1800 100mg caffeine pills (20 subjects for 90 days) 1800 placebo pills (water filled) (20 subjects for 90 days) Same diet for all (100) subjects for 90 days Tools to measure heart rate (clocks) for all subjects Urine cups for all subjects once every week (every 7 days) Dependency questionnaire for all subjects once every week (every 7 days) Sufficient staff to carry out the procedure III.

Procedure: 1) Acquire 100 human subjects who do not have caffeine in their body (have not used caffeine for 1 week). 2) Randomly divide the 100 human subjects into 5 blocks (groups). 3) Randomly assign each block a treatment Treatment#1 placebo Treatment#2 10mg caffeine pill Treatment#3 40mg caffeine pill Treatment#4 70mg caffeine pill Treatment#5 100mg caffeine pill 4) For each block, give the same diet every day for 90 days. 5) For each block set all reasonable variables the same (including exercise) 6) For each block, give 1 pill of randomly selected treatment to each subject every day for 90 days. Distribute the pill in a double blind fashion (subject and distributor doesnt know which pill is being given to reduce bias).

7) On every 7th day (7th day, 14th day, 21st day, 28th day, etc.), give out dependency questionnaire (asks craving toward treatment on a 1-10 scale) to each subject. Take until the 90th day. 8) Record results according to each block. 9) Starting on the 8th day following by increments of 7 days (8th day, 15th day, 22nd day, 29th day, etc.), measure each subjects pulse rate. Measure pulses when subjects wake from sleeping at 7:00AM (resting pulse).Take until the 90th day.

10) Starting on the 9th day following by increments of 7 days (9th day, 16th day, 23rd day, 30th day, etc.), take urine samples from each subject to measure dehydration. Take until the 90th day. 11) Record results according to each block. 12) Gather results for each block and each of the three tests (15 sets of data). Procedure for significance tests 13) For the dependency test carry out 4 2 sample z-tests.

Each block will be set against the control group. Here are the null and alternative hypotheses for all 4 of the tests: U1=Mean of controls dependency level U2=Mean of blocks (all non-control blocks) dependency level Ho: U1=U2 The control groups mean dependency level equals the blocks mean dependency level. Ha: U1*U2 The control groups mean is less than the blocks mean dependency level. (Caffeine causes dependency) 14) For the pulse rate test carry out 4 2 sample z-tests. Each block will be set against the control group.

Here are the null and alternative hypotheses for all 4 of the tests: U1=Mean of controls pulse rate U2=Mean of blocks (all non-control blocks) pulse rate Ho: U1=U2 The control groups mean pulse rate equals the blocks mean pulse rate. Ha: U1*U2 The control groups mean pulse rate is less than the blocks mean pulse rate. (Caffeine speeds up nervous system) 15) For the dehydration test carry out 4 2 sample z-tests. Each block will be set against the control group. Here are the null and alternative hypotheses for all 4 of the tests: U1=Mean of controls volume of urine U2=Mean of blocks (all non-control blocks) volume of urine Ho: U1=U2 The control groups mean volume of urine equals the blocks mean volume of urine. Ha: U1*U2 The control groups mean volume of urine is less than the blocks mean volume of urine. (Caffeine dehydrates the body) 16) For all tests set alpha to .05 (alpha = .05).

17) Draw conclusions from each significance tests (Probability is either below or above the alpha). 18) For each of the three main tests (dependency, pulse rate, and dehydration), compare and contrast all the significance tests for each block and make a master conclusion relating the significance tests to each other. The experiment is completed Statement of Hypothesis Based on research of caffeine and other scientists previous experiments, caffeine will cause a slight dependency (my probability will be larger than my alpha) in human subjects. In Caffeine Consumed (Walton), it says that caffeine has been found addictive in many studies. Furthermore, based on reading from Robert Winstons Withdrawal Caffeine experiment, he believes that caffeine is the most widely consumed behaviorally active substance in the world, chronic caffeine intake only appears to have minor negative affects on health, and that is why government regulatory agencies do not impose restrictions on it. He has experimentally proved this.

Numerous others have found caffeine guilty of producing withdrawal symptoms and other forms of dependency also. Caffeines reason for being part of an early morning ritual for millions of people around the world is its ability to wake up ones body. It has been scientifically proven many times that caffeine accomplishes this task by speeding up the nervous system (Anderson Decaff Anyone?). Therefore, caffeine will increase pulse rate (probability greater than alpha). Although not many articles on the effects of caffeine on the digestive system were read, one article analyzed this subject very well.

Powers Sk, Caffeine and Endurance performance it asserts that caffeine is a major diuretic. The caffeine goes through ones system offering little nutritional value, and exiting the system by dehydrating it. Hence, caffeine in large amounts will create dehydration on the digestive system (probability greater than alpha). Because of extensive research and a well-thought experiment, I know a lot more about caffeine. Though it would have been easy to accept the ideas and theories of my father, thoroughly investigating this problem has supplied information that is more reliable. Undergoing the experiment will be the final step to my investigation on caffeine.

Bibliography Bibliography 1) Caffeine Blues, Stephen A. Cherniske, M.S. (Warner Books, 1998). 2) Caffeine Consumed, R. Jacobs Miller. (Coyote Canyon, 1981). 3) Chronic caffeine intake alters the composition of various parts of the brain in young growing rats, Nakamoto, Temples TE.

Dev Pharmacol Ther 1988 4) Caffeine and Endurance Performance, Powers Sk. Sports Med 1985 May-Jun;23:165-74. 5) Encyclopedia Britannica, Caffeine, 1999. 6) Caffeine side affects and your kids, Walmer K, Scientific America. 1992.

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