——–The current usage of Chinese
Languages are some of the most explicit communication systems, but the
Chinese language is an implicit high context system. To use a Chinese
dictionary, one must understand thousands of characters that can change
meaning when combined with other characters.
First, let’s talk about the current Chinese language and the element of
Chinese language. There are two elements to the Chinese language: the
written language, it based on individual symbols called characters, each of
which represents an idea or a kind of thing. And the spoken language, which
includes a number of different dialects. The written language originally
had no alphabet, but it was easily understood by literate people no matter
what dialect they spoke. Since the early 1950s, a system was using the
Latin alphabet, called Pinyin, it has been developed in China, and it is
now in common use. Most of the spellings of Chinese sounds and names in
this course are based on the Pinyin system of romanization. Those that are
generally familiar in their conventional form, such as the name Chang Kai
sheng or Mao Tse Tung have been retained.
Because of many different region in China, there are many kinds of
dialect in different area. Some of the numerous dialects of spoken Chinese
are totally different from each other. All of them use tones to distinguish
different words. Mandarin, which is spoken in the Beijing region and in
northern China. Generally, it has four common tones. Cantonese, spoken in
southeastern China, has nine tones and is quite different from Mandarin.
Cantonese is probably most common among Chinese-American immigrants. Today
Putonghua, which is based on Beijing-area Mandarin, it is the official
language of government and education, and everyone is expected to learn to
speak it. The central government is also expanding the use of the Pinying
system and is urging citizens to learn this alphabetized system of writing
Chinese words. (Pinyin represents the spoken sounds of Putonghua, which is
an oral representation of Chinese characters.) Citizens are also urged to
learn a simplified system of Chinese. In the People’s Republic the
simplified system is used everywhere. In Taiwan and Hong Kong it is still
very common to see much older, and more complex, signs being used.
Chinese has seven major language groups of which the Mandarin language
group forms the largest group. The Mandarin group consists of a wide range
of dialects in the northern, central, and western regions. The Cantonese
dialects are spoken in Hong Kong, Guangdong, Southern Guangxi Zhuang
Autonomous Region, parts of Hainan, Macau,andinmanyoverseas
settlements. The Hakka (Kejia) languages arespokeninGuangdong,
southwestern Fujian, Jiangxi, Hunan, Yunnan, Guangxi, Guizhou, Sichuan,
Hainan, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, many overseas Chinese
communities, and in pockets throughout Southeast Asia. Most ofthe
inhabitants of the south central region, in Hunan use the Xiang dialects,
also known as Hunanese. The Min dialects are spoken in most of Fujian,
large areas of Taiwan and Hainan, parts of Eastern Guangdong and the
Leizhou Bandao Peninsula, and in areas of Southeast Asia. Most of the
people living in Jiangxi, eastern part of Hunan, and the southeastern
corner of Hubei use the Gan dialects. The majority of the inhabitants of
Zhejiang, as well as people living in southern areas of Jiangsu and Anhui,
speak the Wudialects.TheWudialectssharemarginalmutual
intelligibility with the Mandarin and Gan dialets.
Chinese language has its special verbal style. Because it has a long
history, Chinese people have a habit of using their language and the
language has reformed accompany with their life. After the people’s
republic of china began permitting foreigners to visit, for business
purposes and sightseeing, more and more people have been getting to know
the country. With the advent of foreign visitors the Chinese apparently
have to be told how to behave. A metropolitan newspaper had these
suggestions; “avoid political arguments at all costs. don’t ask people how
old they are, how much they earn, how much they paid for their clothes. If
someone falls down, help them; don’t laugh. When leaving the washroom, be
sure to button up your pants before coming out. Don’t talk too loudly or
shout greetings from afar.”
Indirection permeates Chinese speech. “perhaps”and”maybe”are
culturally common ways of being not totally committed. When something is
“inconvenient”, it most likely is impossible. “maybe I’ll come with you”
means ” I will come with you”. Although phrases such as “we’ll consider it”
and “we’ll study it” seem like the ultimate in hedging and avoiding
difficult issues, more than verbal indirection is probably involved. The
Chinese are leaving open room for discussion, and, if something goes awry,
a reversal will not be a complete breakdown.
The Chinese tend to understate or convey meaning indirectly. They
describe situations vaguely and allusively, using euphemisms and double
negatives,understating. Even if everything may be falling apart, they will
say something like, ” the problems are not great.” Criticism, when it is
given, is indirect but effective. The criticism may come in the form of an
historical allusion, a description of a situation the critic did not like,
and the listener is leftlto understand that he or she is being castigated.
This use of language is supposedly an expression of cultural preference for
harmony and positive interaction among people.
The Chinese state their position, explain and clarify it, and argue for
it in a manner that Americans find repetitious, less complex, and less well
equipped with oratorical and argumentative flourishes than the speaking of
American negotiators. If they encounter option, the Chinese do little more
than restate their case; they do not change a point of view without first
discussing it at length among themselves in private session. The reason
they do not alter their stance probably stems from their group decision-
making practices. A person who negotiates is presenting arguments arrived
at through group deliberation and approved by the proper authorities.
Changes have to be discussed in a like manner.
The Chinese practice keqi, this word is very difficult to translate but
one that takes a meaning something like humility, and more . The Chinese
must not only be humble themselves, but all those related to them must show
humbleness, too. Consequently, they often speak disapprovingly of their
supposedly meager skills and of those of their family and of the people
working under them as well.
Another way to say the current usage of Chinese language is the variety
of the Chinese language. First, it absorbs the foreign phrase, full extent
absorption function of the Chinese language. The Chinese language absorb
many foreign phrases from English and Japanese. For our daily life, our
eating, wearing, using and so on. The most of them come from foreign
country, so many foreign word also come with them. For example, taxi, hot-
line, hot-dog, humbugger, and sukiyaki, make-up room, etc. with the
sentences, we also can mention that ” I want to copy it”, ” I do a part-
time job”, ” tomorrow I will have a party in my room”. The Chinese words
mix with the English words, more and more people use the style method to
express their minds, they think it is very fashion.
The second, in china there are many dialects can affect Chinese spoken
language. Spoken Chinese comprises many regional variants,generally
referred to dialects. However, the mutual unintelligibility of the sub
varieties is the main ground for classifying them as separate languages or
dialect groups. Each dialect group consists of a large number of dialects,
many of which may themselves be referred to as languages. The boundaries
between one so-called language and the next are not always easy to define.
Because each dialect group preserves different features of Middle Chinese
(dating back to early or even pre-T’ang times), they have proven to be
valuable research tools in the phonological reconstruction of Middle and
even to some extent its ancestor, Old Chinese. Most Chinese speak one of
the Mandarin dialects, which are largely mutually intelligible.
In the word, now Chinese language has changed a lot which can infect more
young people. The current usage of Chinese language vary withthe
development of society. People’s notion and minds change with society, so
their language reflect people’s minds.