.. ing or aggressive behavior by activating receptors in organs or the nervous system. Focusing on young males who have passed through puberty. There are associated reports that show a relatively high level of testosterone with dominant, aggressive, or antisocial actors including several studies of men in jail. The scientists found that no significant testosterone difference between those who fought in prison, and those who did not, between the ages of 18 to 35. However, prisoners with a prior record of violence and aggression related crimes, they had a significantly higher testosterone level than those without a history. In the age group of 18to 45, sorted into the same groups, those with chronic aggressive behavior, those socially dominant without physical aggressiveness, and those who were neither aggressive or dominant, their testosterone levels were not significantly different between the aggressive and dominant groups, but they also had significantly higher testosterone than the group that was either aggressive or dominant.
(7. Hawkins, Fredman) A similar study was tested on college hockey players. ( 1. Felson , Tedeschi) They studied 14 male college players ages 18 to 23, and found a significant correlation between testosterone and coach ratings of player’s aggressiveness in respond to threat. Another study was done on four male physicians.
Ranging from ages to 23 to 38, they were confined on a boat for a two week holidaycruise. The testosterone level to be correlated with the physician’s assertiveness and dominant behavior, as ranked by three women on the boat. Overall, there is considerable evidence from a variety of settings that in men, circulating testosterone is correlated with dominant or aggressive behavior, and antisocial norm breaking. Correlation doesn’t imply any reason, and the question is still being pondered, “Is high testosterone a cause of dominant and antisocial behavior?” ( 9. Montague) There has also been argument whether or not that women can be as aggressive and dominant as men. Despite considerable speculation that testosterone is associated with aggression or status in women, the literature is few and far between.
Scientists report that testosterone levels in 55 women increased the status of their occupations. Another study was done with women who were patients in a neurological clinic, found significantly higher testosterone levels among relatively aggressive patients compared to less aggressive ones, but they also differed in diagnois, and making the comparison suspect. ( 5. Toch) The issue of sex differences has been addressed by asking how men and women respond to an identical competitive situation. Testosterone was given by saliva to young men and women before, during, and after competing with a same sex partner in a video game. The hormonal response to the competition was different in each sex.
Males showed the usual pre – contest rise in testosterone, but females did not. Males did not show the usual result that testosterone levels of winners is higher than that of losers, apparently because the video game produced no mood difference between male winners and losers. A mood difference was produced between female winners and losers, but the female showed no specific response to the competition. These results show that the outcome of the competition on testosterone specific to men. (7.
Hawkins, Fredman) From laboratory results and athletic studies, the testosterone level rises in men awaiting a contest, regardless of the eventual outcome contest. Generalizing to the street, hormone levels should be elevated in young men who are constantly against assaults on their reputations. Of course, testosterone level is also affected by the outcome of the contest, so persistent losers might be hormonally depressed, but most men, those with mixed outcome or better, should have elevated testosterone level. ( 3. Diamond) Leaving behind the historic roots of the South, there may be a general hypersensitivity to insult in any subculture that is, or once was organized around young men who are constantly constrained by traditional community agents of social control, as after occurs in frontier countries, gangs, among bohemians, and after social breakdown or natural diseases. When young men place special emphasis on protecting their images and reputations, and they are not restrained from doing so, dominance contests become necessary, the hallmark of male to male interaction.
( 5. Toch) To interpret racial differences in testosterone, a comparison of black and white boys ages 6 to 18 years, mostly preteens, showed no significant race different in testosterone. By adulthood, black males do have significantly higher testosterone levels than white males, possibly reflecting the higher defensive demands on black men during adulthood. ( 10. Hauser, Powers, Noam) The reciprocal linkage between hormones and behavior suggests that if testosterone levels among young men in the inner city are highlighted by their constant defensive posture against challenge and these high hormone levels in turn encourage further dominance contests.
Feedback between challenge and testosterone may create a various circle, sometimes with lethal effects.(7. Hawkins, Fredman) During puberty, the effects of testosterone on behavior appear to work primarily through long term reorganizations of the body and neurohormanal system, and only secondary through short term activation. By the end of puberty, usually around 16 years, the body is nearly at it’s adult form so behavior is affected primarily by the level of testosterone circulating in the blood stream, which can activate steroid receptors. (10. Hauser, Powers, Noam) There is a string correlation and experimental evidence that testosterone levels respond in predictable ways both before and after competitions for status. First, testosterone rises shortly before a competitive event, as if anticipating the challenge.
Second, after the conclusion of competition, testosterone levels in winners rises relative to that of losers. Testosterone also rises after status evaluations, and it falls after status demotions, These effects require the presence of appropriate mood changes. Limited evidence suggests that this pattern of testosterone responses is specific to men. ( 4. Stepansky) As these studies have suggested, aggression in sport is there, but the men mainly showcase it. Aggressive people are attracted to contact violent sport competitions, to where they can fit in while being violent.
On the other hand, sports can create aggressive behaviors that could lead to worse things. Women can and will showcase this, but as said before, men show a stronger case of it. Things of this nature have been going on for centuries, every since the beginning of sport, unfortunately, if these behaviors aren’t controlled, the young children might be the ones to suffer by an outcome that nobody wants to see, doing away with sports in general. 1977 5. Violent Men; an inquiry into the pychology of violence, Hans Toch 1969 6.
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