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Realism

.. a lamb, which they named Dolly, after Dolly Parton, from an adult sheep (Mario, Christopher). The two share the same nucleic DNA, but differ in terms of their mitochondria DNA, which is vitally important for the regulation of the cell. The media and the press ignored this fact, and thus claimed that Dolly and her mother were genetically identical, which sparked a fury of outcry all around the world. The technique of transferring a nucleus from a somatic cell into an egg cell of which the nucleus had been removed, called nuclear transplantation, is an extension of research that had been ongoing for over 40 years. Up until now, scientists thought that adult cells could not be reprogrammed to behave like a fertilised egg and create an embryo, but the evidence obtained by Dolly’s success prove otherwise.

The issues of cloning have been around for a long time, starting with the publication of Joshua Lederberg’s 1966 article on cloning in the American Naturalist, and the publics interest has been perked by many sci-fi books, films, and movies including Aldous Huxley’s 1932 novel Brave New World, 1973’s Sleeper, the 1978 film The Boys from Brazil, and most recently, the movie Multiplicity (Mario, Christopher). The ethical, legal, and moral issues aroused by cloning have been raised by previous projects, and are now simply emerging again, with its focus on three major points: the shift from sexual reproduction with that of asexual replication of existing genes; the ability to predetermine the genes of a child; and the ability to create many genetically identical children (Report/Recommendations of the NBAC). The public responded to Dolly with a mixture of fear and excitement, questioning the benefits and the disasters that could happen in the future if research was to continue. From a poll taken by Maurice Bernstein, M.D., the results showed that 72% of the votes said that cloning should be prohibited by law. They believe that cloning for any reason would be an unethical and immoral thing to do.

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A common misconception of cloning is that it is the instantaneous creation of a fully grown adult from the cells of the individual. Also, that an exact copy, although much younger, of an existing person could be made, reflecting the belief that one’s genes bear a simple relationship to the physical and psychological traits that make up a person. This is one point that those against cloning are often worried about. That the clone would have no soul, no mind, no feelings or emotions of their own, no say in how their life will be with their destiny predetermined for them, and that each individual clone would not be unique. They are also afraid that the clone will not be treated like a person, more like a worthless second copy, or a fill-in for what was there but now is lost.

Although the genes do play an important part, its the interaction among a person’s genetic inheritance, their environment, memories, different life experiences, and the process of learning that result in the uniqueness of each individual (Mario, Christopher). 3. A Day in my Life 100 Years from now An electronic noise booms in my ear just as a metallic arm taps my shoulder. Seven o’ clock. The RAC (robotic alarm clock works), much as I hate to say it, like clockwork.

Right on time. I groan and crawl out of my circular, electrically heated airbed. I love these contraptions – after I threw out my waterbed, the ownership of which was hardly a novelty, I decided to treat myself to a cushioned bed that molded and supported nocturnal movements.I have a breakfast of fortifying mineral tablets flavored with one of ninety thousand varieties available. I realize that I have to shop for a present for my surrogate mother; it’s her birthday today. I shop online, and have to choose between several varieties of thermal scarves and a virtual dog, that yapped and ate and shat and did pretty much all that the extinct dog used to do, with half the trouble.

When the government had decided to do away with all dogs because of a widespread rabies epidemic at the turn of the millenium, the decision had been met with not a little opposition. With time, they had developed what had been deemed the smartest (and most lucrative) invention of the century. I have two virtual poodles of my own, with their very own virtual Siamese kitten to play with. After I’m done with shopping (which tires me; the number of stores they have is simply astounding), I decide to have a chat with my neighbor about the construction of a planet-watcher on our roof. Both his and my kids have moved to the moon as means to the end of de-populating, so to speak, the Earth. With the planet-watcher, we could watch and speak with, inhabitants of virtually any planet within the Solar System.

I switch my palmtop from shop-stop to chat-mode and see that my neighbor is fast asleep. It’s not too difficult to hack into his RAC and have him awoken. (After all, my work as ICP (Internet/Computer Professional) wasn’t for nothing, even if I did choose to take an early retirement.) He stares at his ceiling LCD display to see me laughing. Oh, no, not again .. .

he groans, .. I just changed my PIN numbers yesterday! We need to talk about the PW! I say. With the introduction of the brain mnemonics, my messages are transferred to his PC within a fraction of a second. Hey, what do you say to a little vacation on the moon? Sounds good! Let me see if there’s a rocket flight for today.I am online again, surfing the virtual porn and leaving video messages for my surrogate mom while I search for flights. When I find two flights, a minute from each other, I beam my wardrobe and poodles onto Moon Beam Station 4, where my son lived. Anything else? I quickly shop for my son and his live-in mate, and beam the presents, gift-wrapped, to his house. I was going to the moon.4. Bibliography Sample:1.

Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs in the Workplace MINNESOTA INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC HEALTH. National Survey Results on Drug Use from Monitoring the Future Study. NIDA, 1975-1993. 2. Alcohol and Drugs on American College Campuses: Use, Consequences, and Perceptions of the Campus Environment. Core Institute, 1998.

3. Presley, C.A., et. al., Alcohol and Drugs on American College Campuses: Use, Consequences, and Perceptions of the Campus Environment, Vol. I: 1989-1991. The Core Institute, Student Health Program, Southern Illinois University-Carbondale, January 1993.

4. Presley, C.A. and Meilman, P.W., Alcohol and Drugs on American College Campuses: A Report to College Presidents. Student Health Program, Wellness Center, Southern Illinois University-Carbondale, July 1996. 5.

OSAP’s (now CSAP) Alcohol Practices, Policies, and Potentials of American Colleges and Universities: A White Paper, 1999. Bibliography 1. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs in the Workplace MINNESOTA INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC HEALTH. National Survey Results on Drug Use from Monitoring the Future Study. NIDA, 1975-1993.

2. Alcohol and Drugs on American College Campuses: Use, Consequences, and Perceptions of the Campus Environment. Core Institute, 1998. 3. Presley, C.A., et.

al., Alcohol and Drugs on American College Campuses: Use, Consequences, and Perceptions of the Campus Environment, Vol. I: 1989-1991. The Core Institute, Student Health Program, Southern Illinois University-Carbondale, January 1993. 4. Presley, C.A. and Meilman, P.W., Alcohol and Drugs on American College Campuses: A Report to College Presidents.

Student Health Program, Wellness Center, Southern Illinois University-Carbondale, July 1996. 5. OSAP’s (now CSAP) Alcohol Practices, Policies, and Potentials of American Colleges and Universities: A White Paper, 1999. History Essays.

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