Political Systems Since the creation of mankind the world has been continually changing. With each day, man develops, countries grow and political systems change. A political system is an important set of social institutions. Political systems have many functions. Political systems create resources for education, health, welfare, industry and foreign policy.
Political systems have changed drastically over centuries and are still changing everyday. To understand why and how political systems change, there are many factors. Some major factors are evolution, revolution and economy. A major factor and influence on why a political systems change is due to the countries social economy. The approach in which a country deals with certain political processes are affected by internal divisions of income, wealth and occupation, also by economic dependence or poverty.
There is always a positive association between economic development and equality or income. The Linearity theory states that economic development leads to urbanization which leads to communication which leads to high levels of education and in turn leads to Democracy. This theory does an excellent job in showing how economics lead to a change in political systems. Wealthier nations such as the United States, Japan and other European countries often have more equitable income distributions than poorer countries. According to Robert J. Mundt, a political researcher, “in advanced industrial nations the wealthiest ten percent of households receive about one quarter of the national income, while poorest receive forty percent and about twenty percent get only fifteen percent of the national income; in middle income countries like Brazil, the wealthiest ten percent gets forty-six percent of national income and the poorest forth percent get only eight percent.” An example of a country that social economy influenced the change in their political system would be the Russian Federation.
The social economy lead to the fall of Communism. The Russian federation was a communist country believing in state owned and centrally planned government. Years ago the communists were able to keep up with the other big money powers of the world. But as time went on and they tried to catch up, their economy was too hard to control. Their products were poor quality and their quantity was created on a need basis. There was no efficiency.
The people of Russia would have to wait years for cars, apartments and waited hours in lines for simple things like food and other basic necessities. The soviets began to argue with the government. In 1991, Russia had gone through the worst of its inflation and industrial problems. Eventually Russia became the Russian Federation and there was an end to Communism. Urbanization is another reason that political systems change and develop. People run out of recourses on their rural lands and are forced to flee to the bigger cities.
People go to the bigger cities hoping to find a better life for their families and themselves. As more people go these cities, it creates more jobs. Industry grows and the social economy also grows. Political systems begin to create governments that work on foreign policy and trade which creates more money. Eventually the political systems shape their governments to look like those of the other bigger wealthier countries in the world. Another factor that changed many countries political systems is that of a revolutionary change.
Two countries that were strongly influenced by the revolutionary change were Russian and Germany. After World War I, Russians believed the revolution lead to the collapse or imperialism and capitalism. Russia was doing well before the war. Industry was still grown and the people seemed to be happy. That did not last long though, the war changed everything. When the Russian military went to war against Germany, the tsarist government fell.
As the tsarist government fell apart so did the Russian economy. The government found themselves stuck in a situation that they did not know what to do. In 1917 democratic moderates over the power of the tsar. This group hoped to make the country more modern and democratic. But in a strange turn of events, the leader of the moderate democratics, betrayed his western allies and made a peace agreement with Germany.
Eventually a Russian revolution created a party with the help of Germany lead to the fall of imperialism and capitalism. Soon after Russia became a communist country. Revolutionary change is apparent when looking at Chinas development as a government. China and Russias political change are similar in many ways. One of the biggest revolutionary movements in China was Maoism. Maoism was created by a person named Mao Zedong.
Mao believed in strengthening and rebuilding China and by doing so, he and his followers believed in guerrilla warfare and in turn created a so-called revolution. Maoism believed that it was important to listen to the peasants and tried to propaganda to join his army. He believed heavily in guerrilla warfare to take over the government. Maos acts were unsuccessful and in 1949 Communism became Chinas government. Great Britain is a country was evolutionary change and development not only influenced its own development, but also many other countries in the world.
Great Britain government is considered the mother government. It is the oldest government in existence. Their evolution as a government was watched and studied by many countries. Many parts of democratic governments such as the legislative and executive branch can be seen as early as 1066 for Great Britain. Great Britain legislative branch was called the Great Council and the executive branch was called the king council.
The Parliament was created early in their government and is very similar to many countries man governmental body. Great Britain created in 1689 Bill of Rights which gave people their individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech. Within the last few years, Great Britain has seen some decline because if the Grand Old Party. There has been no major change in years in their government and some researchers believe it is effected their economy and other problems the country is having. The legislative branch was called the Great Council and the executive branch was called the Kings Council. The Parliament was created which is Great Britains main government body.
The Parliament can be compared to other main bodies such as the House of Representatives in the United States or the Majilis on Iran. In 1689, Great Britain created the Bill of Rights. The Bill of Rights created human rights for everyone. Many countries around the world have tried to create similar rights for their people. Although Great Britain economy has a slight decline within the last few years, it has proven to be one of the most stable governments in the world.
The political attitudes vary from country to country as well as they always change. As countries evolve, the attitude of the people change according to what is happening. In countries that are in a strong economic standing, the peoples attitudes probably will lead more toward a nationalist feeling. For example, the people of Germany are upset because ever since that wall separating East and West Germany had to come down, there has been lower unemployment and fewer jobs. At first everyone was so happy to see the wall come down and now some wish that it never had. It is proven that the more happy the people are with their government, the more they will participate.
When more people get involved, this leads to political change. Sometimes a countries political system changes when the people are not happy with the government. People get outraged with corruption, unemployment, welfare, education, and human rights. When the people are outraged, they have been known to revolt against the government. Also the people support a leader that will change the system from the way that it is being ran.
An example is in Mexico decades ago. A leader stepped up that said he would represent the workers and the farmers. The people immediatly fought to get this man in power, and he eventually he was elected in to power and created the PRI, which is a political party that remained in power for decades. When looking at the evolution of countries and the change in their political system, it seems as if many countries have changed their form of government to a democratic government. Many countries have adapted to the Western Countries forms of government.
Within the past couple of decades, more and more countries are slowly moving into a democratic form of government. Democracy has not fully proven to be the answer to all country problems but has been a step closer to helping some situations. There are many theories that try prove the democratic countries are less likely to have a war and more likely to be similar and in the long run better the world economy. China is the longest standing communist country and has no desire to try to reform to democracy. Political scientist do not believe that this is a good decision for China.
In China,the people have no rights, and most of the country is poor. Also you are only allowed to practice the religion the government tells you can. Right now in China thousands of people are thrown in jail and killed for trying believe in the religion of their choice. Many researchers agree that democracy is one of the most influential forms of government. As time change, so will the countries of the world.
It is very hard for comparative scientist to make exact predictions on what will be the future for political systems. Looking back on history we can expect many, many more changes.