Iq Testing And Grouping Running Head: IQ TESTING AND GROUPING INTELLIGENCE TESTING AND GROUPING RON WILLIAMS PSYCHOLOGICAL AND EDUCATIONAL TESTING CAMPBELL UNIVERSITY DR. FATICA IQ TESTING AND GROUPING 2 In defining intelligence, there has always been the question of whether intelligence is measured as a remarkable occurrence or if it has many variables that are combined. For example, is it how smart a person is? Or is it their ability to perform well on standardized tests? Are they measuring a persons intelligence? Or just some arbitrary quantity of the persons IQ? Or is it a mixture of survival, mathematical, social and other abilities. There are many debates regarding whether measuring intelligence is determined from test scores and results, or if it is measured by the persons ability to process and problem solve. Uses of intelligence testing in an educational setting, intelligence and achievement tests are administered routinely to assess individual accomplishment. They are used to improve instruction and curriculum planning.
High schools use these tests to assist in the students future educational planning and help decide what college or type of college to attend. Elementary schools utilize screening and testing procedures to help determine readiness for writing and reading placement. Intelligence can be measured, by intelligence tests, among them the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and the Wechsler Scale. These tests are intended to determine an individuals intelligence quotient (IQ). Intelligence tests usually provide an estimate of global cognitive functioning as well as information about functioning within more specific domains. Intelligence tests are quite stable compared to measures of other human traits.
However, the degree of stability increases with age such that early childhood and preschool measures of intellectual function are far less predictive of later functioning than assessments taken during middle childhood. The stability of intelligence test scores may change as a function due to important environmental factors. Therefore, intelligence test scores are descriptive of a childs functioning at that point in time when taking a test. The test scores could also be effected by environmental factors, childs psychiatric status or educational program. IQ TESTING AND GROUPING 3 Components of a good intelligence test are (a) Validity; does the test really measure intelligence and not something else? (b) Reliability; does the test produce consistent measures? (c) Norms; are the participants being fairly compared? Components that make an intelligence test flawed are (a) Poor validity; tests may be sensitive to social factors.
(b) Poor norms; comparing people who are different. (c) Poor application; tests measure something that the school or job has nothing to do with. Theories of Process Psychometric Model Psychometric approach is defined as psychology that deals with the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests for the measurement of psychological variables such as intelligence, aptitude, and personality traits. There are various psychometric approaches to intelligence. The following paragraphs describe three different theorists and their psychometric model. First is Charles Spearman, who believed that intelligence is a combination of two parts. According to his two-factory theory of intelligence, the performance of any intellectual act requires some combination of g, (general intelligence factor) which is available to the same individual to the same degree for all intellectual acts.
(Specific factors) or s is specific to that act and varies in strength from one act to another. S is specific knowledge such as verbal reasoning or spatial problem solving. Spearman equated g with mental energy. If one knows how a person performs on one task that is highly saturated with g, one can safely predict a similar level of performance for another highly g saturated task. The prediction of performance on tasks with high s factors is less accurate. Thus, the most important information to have about a persons intellectual ability is an estimate of their g or mental energy (Plucker 1989).
Guilfords theory includes 150 abilities, arranged in three dimensions; contents, operations, and products. Guilfords three-dimensional Structure of Intellect classified intellectual acts into 120 separate categories. These categories are operations dimension, products dimension and material IQ TESTING AND GROUPING 4 or content dimension. He developed firm convictions regarding the ability of individual difference among people. Guilford believed that intelligence is much too complicated to be subsumed by a few primary mental abilities and g factor. His systematic theory gave rise to what is known as informational-operational psychology.
Information-Processing Informational theorists believe human cognition is best understood as the management of information through a system with limited space or.