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Introduction

INTRODUCTION Two years ago, MP3 was just another audio compression format. Today, it’s a Net phenomenon that’s at the center of an enormous controversy. That’s because MP3 makes it possible for people with an Internet connection to bypass record stores (and cashiers) and download CD-quality music by their favorite artists–for free. MP3 is great for music lovers and cheapskates, who can download funky tunes to their hearts’ content without spending a dime; however, it’s a nightmare for musicians and record companies, who can only watch helplessly as their profits drop into a digital black hole. DEFINITION MP3 is short for MPEG-1 Layer 3 (Moving Pictures Expert Group), a format for storing digital audio. It uses an advanced type of audio compression which reduces the filesize with little reduction in quality.

MP3 is used particularly for music distribution over the Internet, but is also use for other purposes such as real-time digital audio transmissions over ISDN (used by reporters). MPEG-1 has been around since 1992, but during he last few years (1998/99) it has started to get widespread attention from regular media and ordinary users. An MP3 file (or simply an MP3) is a file that contains MP3-compressed sound data. It is played using an MP3 player. You can recognize MP3 files by their file-extension (the end of the filename), which is .mp3. AUTHORS MP3 was invented by Fraunhofer IIS leading organization of applied research in Germany In a joint cooperation with the University of Erlangen (Prof.

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Dieter Seitzer) under the sponsorship of the Motion Picture Experts Group (MPEG) and formalized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). SOUND QUALITY The original 50 MB wave file (about 5 minutes of CD quality audio) MP3-compressed will end up as an MP3 file using only about 5 megabytes of space with little or no audible loss in quality. The size depends on the length of the song and the bitrate (quality). The data is automatically decompressed while the MP3 is being played. How is it possible to do this you ask? Well, I won’t get into the technical details, but basically the MP3 encoder removes the parts of the sound not audible to the human ear.

This means that MP3 is a ‘lossy’ type of compression (comparable to JPEG in the graphics area). This means that what comes out from your CD or Wave file is NOT the same thing that comes out of the MP3 that has been created from the CD/Wav. The sound data that has been lost will not be returned if the MP3 is decoded back to WAV. REQUIREMENTS You will first of all need a MP3 player, players are available for all computer platforms. If you are using Windows 95/98/NT we can warmly recommend Winamp, the most common MP3 player.

It also supports a lot of other audio formats,like WAV, MID, MOD and CD audio. Another well-known player is Sonique. Winamp has a very simple interface that can be used by anybody who has operated a CD player. To load an MP3 in Winamp, use the button (in Winamp) that looks like it would open a CD tray, or just double-click the MP3 file you want to play. The reason why it has been so successful is undoubtedly due to its simple, attractive look, its numerous options and the fact that it is a shareware program with no limits on the number of functions To play the MP3s will need a soundcard (preferably16-bit), speakers or headphones (preferrably good ones) and at least a 486 processor.

MP3 ON THE WEB Three major MP3 sites are Lycos MP3 Search Engine, MP3.com, and RioPort.com. MP3 HARDWARE MP3 Portables Realizing the success of MP3, thanks to the rapid growth of the Internet and the increasing numbers of users interested in this digital-audio format, a number of manufacturers have recently started marketing portable players (similar to the Walkman): they generally have a memory of between 40 and 80 MB where you can store your favourite MP3 files. Portable MP3 players are like Walkmen for MP3. You just need to upload your MP3 tracks onto the player (about the size of a pack of cigarettes) and you get CD-quality sound with the advantage that there are no moving parts so it’s unaffected by jolts. MP3 SOFTWARE There are various types of software for MP3: player, decoder, encoder, ripper, grabber, utility. Mp3 Player Mp3 Player software (often simply called a Player) is a program that can read audio/video files and play them back.Usually the player offers additional characteristics such as the possibility to equalize the signal that comes out of your loudspeakers, PlayList management (sequencing files to play in a certain order or in random or shuffle mode), the possibility to convert files into different audio formats (for instance from MP3 to Wav and vice versa).

MP3 Encoder Software MP3 encoder software (often just called an encoder) is a programme that can convert wave files into MP3 format. This conversion greatly reduces the size of files whilst maintaining a high standard of audio quality (this is possible thanks to compression algorithms). It is also possible to specify the characteristics of the MP3 files that you are creating, choosing from several options that will determine the final size of the file. The reduced size of MP3 files greatly facilitates their distribution on the net, which would have been impossible in wave format, at least for the common user. Converting Software This type of software is a program that allows the conversion of files into different formats. Usually these programmes are not limited to converting into MP3, but support many other audio/video formats.

CD Mastering Software It is CD writing software programme that allows you to transfer files from hard disk (or other source) onto CD in a permanent way (although today we have re-writable CDs). To achieve this, you need a CD writer that has the same characteristics as a normal CD player, which is today a standard feature in a computer, and that can also write data onto recordable supports (the capacity is 650MB for 74 minutes, but there are CDs on the market whose capacity is 700MB for 80 minutes). CD writing formats are standardized, but there are several versions depending largely on the software used for writing. CD Extracting Software CD extracting software (normally called a grabber or ripper) is a programme that can extract tracks from an audio CD, making a copy of them on hard disk in wave format. These wave files are the starting point for creating Mp3 files, which are much smaller in size; in fact many rippers feature an MP3 converter and can obtain an MP3 file from an audio CD, going through the wave format which is then automatically deleted in order to free up space.

Utility Programmes This is software that carries out accessory operations, with no direct effect, but with the result of simplifying other operations. Typical examples are: WinZIP (to manage compressed archives), Cool Edit Pro (to manage wave files whilst changing their characteristics or applying sound effects) and Mp3Wolf (useful in the search for MP3 files on the net). CONCLUSION As you can see it is Mp3 format can be very useful for end users. It is allow you to store many files of your favorite music on your hard disk and listen them any time you like using many good features of MP3 player. Bibliography BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1) www.whatis.com (search for) 2) www.vitaminic.co.uk.

Introduction

On March 26, my peers and I visited Fort Tilden, the first of two ecosystems we were to observe.
At this specific site we were interested in the interaction of living and nonliving things in this
environmental ecosystem. On April 2, we visited Plumb Beach, our second ecosystem we observed. Both
beaches are part of Gateway National Recreation Area. During these lab periods we attentively examined
and inspected several sand danes.

There are several different kinds of ecosystems. An ecosystem is an area where the living
community interacts with the nonliving world. The two ecosystems I visited were the sand dunes. The
sand dunes are mounds of sand that are piled up by the wind. Sand dunes are on coastal or inland
areas(Encyclopedia of Plants,1988). The conditions of the sand dunes are quiet harsh due to the high speed
winds and intense heat from the sun. There is also very little water available. In fact the main source of
water is from the rain(Encyclopedia of Plant,1988). Because of this, the primary plant is grass. Grass has
the flexibility and adaptability which permits it to live in many different situations. Grass have long roots
enabling it to get water and nutrients(Scientific American,1974).

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There are certain adaptations that different plants adopt to, like grass accumulation on the sand
dunes. These plants may have similar leaf structures because there they share the common hazard of
losing water by evaporation process of transpiration(Scientific American, 1974).

Sand dunes like other types of ecosystems are very complex. The different components such as
biotic and abiotic surroundings, greatly effect the population and status of the particular place. Besides
this, man plays a major role. If people pollute the environment, no matter how much water and nutrients
the organisms receive, they will still be unable to survive.

MATERIALS and METHODS
At the two Sand dune ecosystems, my group and I were to investigate the difference in abundance and
distribution of plant life within the two ecosystems. The first one “Fort Tilden”, is an undisturbed sand
dune ecosystem. It has been protected from human disturbance by an extensive fence system. The second
sand dune “Plumb Beach”, is a disturbed sand dune ecosystem. We also had to compare the abundance of
plants in the front and back of the sand dunes and the interdunes. They may all have a difference
abundance of vegetation. We walked across the dunes at both beaches and gazed at the vegetation and
species. Our focus at hand was on four particular plants. They were grasses, herbs, shrubs, and trees.
My general hypothesis was that the disturbed ecosystem should have a lot less vegetation then
that of the undisturbed ecosystem. When people step on and litter on the sand dunes, they destroy the
plants and vegetation. As to the difference of the front and back of dunes, my hypothesis is based on the
direction of the wind. The wind causes that there should be less vegetation.

DISCUSSION
Comparison of the two sand dunes
Based on the data I collected in both sand dunes, I did not see a significant difference in plants
between the disturbs and undisturbed sand dunes. There were however, a few blow outs which were
caused on people stepping on the sand dunes and by all the litter that is found all over the beach.
The reason for the fairly large abundance of plants at Plumb Beach ecosystem, must be caused by
some other factor then that of Fort Tilden which is undisturbed. As we know, peoples behavior makes a
noticeable affect on plants, e.g. the blow outs. Therefore, it might be the difference in distance of the sand
dunes. The primary sand dune in Plumb Beach is closer to the water, therefore, causes more vegetation or
equal to Fort Tilden, even though it is known to be disturbed.
Sand Dunes at Fort Tilden
Primary dune: The Front of the dune had 15% grass, 5% herbs, 0% shrubs and 0% trees. The back had
45% grass, 15% herbs, 0% shrubs and 0% trees. The difference between front and back must be caused by
the water. The water has a lot of salt in it. This makes the front primary dune weaker to grow plants.

Inter dune: This is between the first and second dune. It had 50% grass, 10% herbs, 15% shrubs, 0% trees.
The inter dune is more shallow than the actual dune. This means that it is closer to the water under the
sand, therefore, it is richer in plants.

Second dune: Here we found more of the plants in the front rather than the back. This would support my
hypothesis that if the wind blows on one side there would be less vegetation on that side. In this case the
wind is blowing on back of the dune.
Inter dune: There is only 5% of grass and herbs, 50% shrubs and 15% trees. This can be compared to the
first inter dune just with an abundance of trees and shrubs.
Third dune: In general there is more plants in the front then the back. This again would prove my
hypothesis that the wind makes it harder for vegetation to grow.

Inter dune: There were 25% grass, 10% herbs, 15% shrubs, and 0% trees. This would again indicate the
shallowness of the area.
Fort dune: This is a man-made dune. This might be the cause in the difference between this and the
previous dunes. In this dune we find more vegetation in the back than in the front. The man-made dune is
structured differently, therefore it is not the same as the other dunes.
There was a fresh water pond at Fort Tilden near the fourth dune. Many species come and drink
from the water. The water does not evaporate because it is in the shallow area and rain water falls in the
pond from the surrounding areas.
CONCLUSION
The above gives numerous reasons and explanation as to why certain vegetation grows and does
not grow in certain parts or types of sand dunes. The main factor however, is caused by human destruction.
These activities affect the organisms and life in or on the sand dunes. Although the difference in the
abundance between the two sand dunes were not significant, nevertheless, the factor of human destruction
is the over righting cause of the difference in plants. This is a major factor that each and every one of us
have to remember: “in an environment we are all codependent on each other.”
EXTRA CREDIT
QUESTIONS
1) Is there significant difference between the amount of grass on the front and back of the primary dune?
2) Is there a significant difference between the amount of grass on the front of dunes numbers 1 and 4?
3) Is there a significant difference of amounts of shrubs and trees between interdunes 1 and 2?
ANSWERS
1) Based on my own data I would hypothesis that there is a significant difference. Based on my statistical
analysis which compared the two groups as follows: The calculated T-value equals .1542014. The critical
value for a level of significant is 2.23. I therefore accept the null hypothesis, which tells me there is no
significant difference.

2) My general hypothesis based on my data would make me conclude that there is no significant
difference. Based on the statistical hypothesis the calculated T-value was .4432906, and the critical T-
value was 2.23. Based on the T-test rule, I accept the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference
in these two front dunes, as my hypothesis indicated.

3) My general hypothesis would be that there is no significant difference. Based on the statistical analysis
we do see a difference. The calculated T-value is 5.0527 and the critical value is 2.23. Because the
calculated value is larger then the critical T-value we accept the alternate hypothesis and I would conclude
that there is a significant difference.

LITERATURE CITED
1) Prof. David M. Moor, 1988. Encyclopedia of Plant and Animals.

2) Amos, William H., 1974. The Life of a Sand Dune, Scientific American 32:287-293.

3) Gemmell, D.J. Ph.D. 1997. Personal Communication.

EXPLANATION OF TABLES
The first four tables show the abundance of four plants in the front and back of the dunes at Fort
Tilden. The fifth table demonstrates the percentage of these plants in the inter dunes of Fort Tilden. The
sixth table demonstrates the abundance of plants at Plumb Beach.

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