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Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was under way 1st in Britain and wasn’t possible without coal. Agriculture Revolution Every 3rd year the farmers believed that they had to leave their field fallowed so the soil won’t wear out. In 1730 Charles Townshend discovered that fields did not had to be left fallowed, if farmers would rotate the crops. Charles suggested to grow wheat or barely and then the next year grow clover or turnips. Clover and turnips provided excellent feed for cattle. New Farm Machines Jethro Thull developed a seed drill that planted seeds in straight rows.

This was a big improvement over the old method of scattering seeds at random, which made fields a tangle of crop and weeds. In the 1700’s farmers began to use iron plows instead of wood plows. In 1800’s wealthy landowners used mechanical reapers and threshers which increased production. The Enclosure Movement Since the Middle Ages farmers worked small strips of land in scattered fields. The razed their animals and gathered timber on public lands.

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In the 1500’s wealthy landowners began claiming the right to these public lands. This made agriculture more efficient because the wealthy had more land to experience with new crops. Smaller farmers were then driven right out of a job. With more food lead to better health and rapid growth. The demand for manufactured goods was now high.

Changes In The Textile Industry Inventions went off right and left. In 1733, John Kay invented the Flying Shuttle. This replaced the handheld shuttle for weaving. It sped up the weaving process. Soon they were using thread faster than produced.

In 1764, James Hargreaves developed the Spinning Jenny. It had several spindle on a single wheel. In 1769, Richard Arkright built the Water Frame it could hold up to 100 spindles. It was too heavy to be operated by hand so it was ran by water power. 10yrs later Samuel Crompton developed the Spinning Mule, which used features from the Spinning Jenny and the Water Frame. Cotton thread was now produced at high speeds.

In 1785, Edward Cartwright built a Power Loom powered by water. They could produce 200 times more cloth in a day. In 1793, Eli Whitney invented the Cotton Gin that increased the supply of raw cotton and gave the British cotton industry a further boost. It tore the fibers from the seeds and made it possible for a single slave to turn out as much as 50 slaves. Cotton production soared and the price fell. Development Of The Steam Engine Although many inventions in the Textile Industry were powered by running water, steam soon became the major source of energy. In 1698, Thomas Savery had built a steam-driven pump to remove water from flooded coal mines. Except his pump frequently exploded because of the intense pressure of the steam. In the early 1700’s, Thomas Newcomen developed a safer steam pump.

His engine broken down lots and required lots of coal to fuel it though. Finally James Watt came alone in the 1760’s to revise the pumps of Newcomen and made it better. His got 4 times more power from the same amount of coal. Steam powered the Industrial Revolution. They were used in the growing of Textile Industry. They also brought great changes in the mining of iron and coal and they revolutionized transportation. Advances In Transportation & Communication In the 1700’s the need for rapid, inexpensive transportation led to a boom in Canal building in Britain.

In 1759 the Duke of Bridgewater built a Canal to connect his coal mines and factories. A Scottish engineer John McAdam invented a road surface made of crushed rock. In 1829 George Stephenson, a mining engineer, developed the Rocket, it was the 1st steam-powered locomotive. It could go 36mph. Steel rails replaced iron rails, speed were then increased. In 1807 Robert Fulton developed a paddle-wheel steam ship called the Clermont.

This improved communication to other nations. Aboriginal Paradigm It was mainly an all for your self way. Workers tend to work only for the present need. The object of life was to maintain ones rank and the ideal of personal gain was the work of the devil. Capital as wealth existed, but there was no investing of it.

Land was seen as the core of social life rather than as real-estate to be bought or sold as a comonity. To use the traditional Aboriginal Paradigm it would be almost impossible to have a good future economic developments. People would not move up in life they just want to maintain status. No change need, therefore no developments. Industrial Paradigm They invested money into business ventures.

They’re goal was to gain enough money to pay all the costs of the ventures, plus some additional money or prophet. The prophet would be reinvested into another venture. This paradigm could not be productable for future goods. People would think about the money too much. To have future economic developments they would need each other to do so.

They need both of their ways to balance each other off. One side would want to invest and one side would want to provide only for themselves. Together they would succeed. It just wouldn’t work with one group.

Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution Corporate development during the Industrial Revolution was made in part by entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs were the people who took responsibility for the organization and operation of a new business venture. These business men often risked the initial money for setting up different types of businesses. With the risk of large sums of money, some of these entrepreneurs made enormous profits. Two major entrepreneurs of American history are John D. Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie.

The Standard Oil Company founded by John D. Rockefeller and the U.S. Steel Company founded by Andrew Carnegie, both were two corporations that had a great impact on the lives of most Americans. The Standard Oil Company and U.S. Steel Company were made successful in different ways due to the actions of their different owners.

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The companies differed in their labor relations, market control, and structural organization. In the steel industry, Carnegie developed a system known as vertical integration. This means that he simply cut out the middle man. Carnegie bought his own iron and coal mines, because using independent companies was unreliable, cost too much and were inefficient. By doing this he now was able to undersell his steel making competitors, because they had to pay the competitors they went through to get the raw materials.

Unlike Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller integrated his oil business from top to bottom, his distinctive innovation in movement of American industry was horizontal. This meant he followed one product through all its stages. For example, Rockefeller controlled the oil when it was drilled, through the refining stage, and he maintained control over the refining process turning it into gasoline. Although these two powerful men used two different methods of management their businesses were still very successful (Conlin, 425-426). Entrepreneurs or better known “Robber Barons” like Andrew Carnegie, “the steel king,” and John D.

Rockefeller, “the oil baron,” exercised their genius in devising ways to circumvent competition. Although, Carnegie inclined to be tough-fisted in business, he was not a monopolist and disliked monopolistic trusts. John D. Rockefeller came to dominate the oil industry by bringing a new energy and overwhelming strategy into his business. With one upward stride after another he organized the Standard Oil Company, which was the nucleus of the great trust that was formed. Rockefeller showed little mercy in his business dealings.

He believed primitive savagery prevailed in the jungle world of business, where only the fittest survived (Social Darwinism). He pursued the policy of “ruin or rule.” Rockefeller’s oil monopoly did turn out a superior product at a relatively cheap price. Rockefeller believed in ruthless business, Carnegie did not, yet they both had the most successful comp! anies in their industries (The American Pageant, pages 515-518). Rockefeller treated his customers and competitors in the same manner that Andrew Carnegie treated his workers: cruel and harsh. The Standard Oil Company desperately wanted every possible company to buy their products. For example Standard Oil used ruthless tactics when Rockefeller threatened to start his own chain of grocery stores and put local merchants out of business if they did not buy oil from Standard Oil Company.

Carnegie dealt with his workers with the same cold lack of diplomacy and consideration. Carnegie would encourage an unfriendly competition between two of his workers and he goaded them into outdoing one another. Some of his employees found working under Carnegie unbearable. These rivalries became so important to the employees that some did not talk to each other for years (McCloskkey, page 145). Although both Carnegie and Rockefeller created extremely successful companies, they both used unscrupulous methods in some aspect of their corporation building to ! get to the top. The success of the Standard Oil Company and U.S.

Steel company was credited to the fact that their owners ran them with great authority. In this very competitive time period, many new businesses were being formed. It took talented businessmen to get ahead and keep the companies running and make the fortunes that were made during this period. Work Cited: Bailey, Thomas A. and David M.

Kennedy: The American Pageant. pp. 515-518. 1987. Conlin, Joseph R.

History of the U.S.: Our Land, Our Time. pp. 425-426. 1985. Latham, Earl: John D. Rockefeller; Robber Baron Or Industrial Statesman? (Problems in American Civilization Series). pg. 39.

1949. McCloskey, Robert Green: American Conservatism In The Age Of Enterprise 1865-1910. pg. 145. 1951.


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