Pre IB His/Geo
The impact of Economics and Science during the 19th Century
In the period from c. 1850-1914 economics and science were changing the world and lifestyles. Adam Smith introduced the idea of capitalism and gave the idea that mercantilism is bad (‘lessie faire’). Smith said that self-interest and individual efforts benefit society and contribute to the common good. Malthus and Ricardo had pretty much the same idea. The both believed that the poor should help themselves and not rely on the government. Malthus believed that if we helped the poor they would have more babies and that would mean unavoidable poverty, famine, and misery. Bentham and Mill had the exact opposite idea of Malthus and Ricardo. Bentham and Mill believed that the laws and the government should help the poor and improve living conditions.
Science also had an impact on the society and the way we live our lives. Darwin (c.1850) developed the theory of Evolution and wrote two books about it, one of those books being “ Origin of Species”. Social Darwinism is applied to people or groups of people. Mendel, an Austrian munk, studied genetics through pea plants. He discovered that every offspring inherits traits from their parents. Pavlov studied conditioned responses. He held a treat in front of the dogs nose and rang a bell and it salivated. After awhile he just had to ring the bell for the dog to salivate.