Homosexuality Homosexuality- The Major Cause of Homosexuality The origins of human sexuality and homosexuality in particular have puzzled philosophers, theologians and ordinary people for thousands of years. In scatter cultures, homosexuals have been regarded as a normal part of life, however, same sex attraction to most cultures have been treated as an unforgivable sin or a terrible crime. Many psychologists and psychiatrist had attempted to treat and counsel the homosexuals. In our social norm, male attracts to female and female attracts to male. To everyone this is a natural and biological urge.
However, there is a significant minority who attracts to their own sex. Its about five percent of the population in the world. There are many opposing viewpoints of whether it derives from variation in our genes or our physiology, from the intricacies of our personal history or from convergence of these? Is it for that matter a choice rather than a compulsion? Chances are no one factor or study can alone explicate and clarify the human sexual orientation. However, there are evidences that prove being gay is not a choice. The nature of homosexuality primarily comes from ones biological sexual orientation and the environment is just a source to bring forth or repress the behavior Many researchers and scientists have long search for the distinguishable brain structures, the biochemistry in the human brains to differentiate the differences to classify between the two obvious sexes we now have in our society, male and female.
Such sex differentiation of the brains structure is called sexual dimorphism. . (LeVay/ Hamer 22) The first significant observation of sexual dimorphism performed in an animal laboratory. Roger A. Gorski, a professor at University of California, Los Angeles, conducted an experiment on rats.
In 1978, Gorski examined the rats hypothalamus, a region at the base of its brain that is involved in instinctive behaviors and regulation of metabolism. He discovered there is a group on front of the hypothalamus is several times larger in millimeter of the male rats compared to the female rats. The cell group is very small but it could be easily observed on a stained slice when being viewed under a microscope. More interestingly, Gorskis finding applied to the sexual orientation between males and females. That particular group of cell is known as the medial preoptic are has been involved in the sexual behaviors typically displayed in males.
For instance, if there is a male rat has a injury medial preoptic area, he apparently couldnt indifferent to sex with another female. From the study of Gorski and his co-workers, we now know the androgen is the typical male hormone and the estrogen is the female hormone played a major role in bring about dimorphism during the fetus development. (LeVay/Hamer 23) Another finding also involved with Gorski and his colleagues at U.C.L.A, especially with his student, Dr. Laura S. Allen. They also found the dimorphic structure in the human brain.
A cell group named INAH3, shorten for the third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus, in the medial preoptic region of the hypothalamus is about three times larger in men that in women. (LeVay/Hamer 23) Animal studies make available a good deal of evidence for biological basis of disease, but in this case, sexual orientation. Through a careful exploitation of hormone level on rats, Gorski as been able to produce male rodents that demonstrate feminine behavior and injected into the female fetus that develop with the male fetus and it appear to be masculine because of the male testosterone. They also look and act more like males. In addition, they are less attractive to male mice (Gorman 60) Related to Gorski and Allens study, Simon LeVay, a British biologist and neurologist at San Diego Salk Institute, who is also gay, performed another study for Biological Studies, in 1990.
LeVay decided to check whether INAH3 or some other cell group in the medial preoptic area varies in size with sexual orientation as well as with sex. LeVay conducted an experiment on the hypothalamus in autopsy specimens from nineteen homosexual men, all of whom died of AIDS and sixteen heterosexual men, six of whom had also died of complication of AIDS. After encoding the specimens to eliminate all the bias that could skew the outcome. LeVay carefully sliced the hypothalamus into serial slices. He measured their cross-sectional areas and their thickness under a microscope.
LeVay has concluded the sexually dimorphic nucleus INAH3 were significantly larger than of female and smaller in male homosexuals than in straight men and similar in size to the nucleus of female. In some gay men, this group altogether nonexistent; this is statistically proven in 1 in 1000 gay men. LeVay hypothesized that this is a biological factor and possibly genetically based has influenced in the brains of homosexuals to become feminized. (LeVay/Hamer 25) William Byne, a psychiatrist at Mount Sinai Medical Center decided to challenge and test LeVays finding. Byne compared the brains of nineteen heterosexual men and seven women and found the male nuclei were larger, as LeVay had initiated. Byne came up with several arguments that other factors could also influenced the cause of homosexuality but chosen not to publish his result until he can rule out all the possibilities that could contradict his argument.
He is also collecting numerous human brains for a comparison of gay and straight males. (Horgan 26) There are many conservatives who disapprove of homosexuality and have the intense hostility with the concept of gay gene and have traditionally argued against it. But this is because those conservatives do not understand the implications that lie behind the gay gene. Homosexuality is life left-handedness. Its neither chosen nor a psychological illness. Since the homosexuality exposed and became a controversial issue in United States in the last three decades, many conservatives argue, Homosexuality is a chose lifestyle, like vegetarian. Its a disease like schizophrenia.
(Burr 22). But since scientists had proven those are not completely cases of homosexuality and it clearly a biological development like and it does not correlate with any environment factors. Scientists has classified homosexuality is a trait. For every trait they studied, clinicians and biologists often assemble a trait profile of the sum total they have gathered in their studies. The trait usually shows up in the population as two orientation. Ninety-two percent of the population usually has the majority orientation and about eight percent has the minority orientation.
Either the two traits are non-pathological and chosen. The minority orientation runs in the families has a name of maternal effect given by the geneticists which men always receive it from their mother. If it is inheritable, as demonstrated by the fact those identical twins, whose are naturally clones are far more likely to share the minority orientation than siblings who are not twins. For example, handedness, right- handed holds the majority orientation in the populations that the left-handed holds the minority orientation. This theory could apply to the homosexuals and heterosexuals.
Heterosexuality accounts roughly ninety-five percent of the population while the homosexuality is the minority orientation, which holds the other five- percent of the population. Clearly family, social norms, friends, teacher or school education cant make you to become gay, which is a minority orientation. (Burr 24) Dean H. Hamer of National Cancer Institute studied the DNA from forty pairs of homosexual brothers and found thirty-three of them share genetic markers on the X-chromosome in a region know as Xq28. X chromosome is one of the two sex determined chromosomes. It is always inherited from mothers. G …