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Holography

.. ther great asset came about in 1977, the Museum of Holography’s traveling exhibition, Through the Looking Glass.” It is based on its inaugural exhibition of the same name and was opened in Toronto. The traveling show visited art museums and galleries, children’s museums and science & technology centers in the United States and abroad for well over a decade. What magazine was the first to use a hologram? The National Geographic magazine was the first major publication to put a hologram on its cover. The March 1984 issue carried nearly 11 million holograms throughout the world.

Another cover hologram illustrated the feature article, The Search for Early Man” came out in November of 1985. The December 1988 National Geographic magazine featured the most aspiring hologram ever published in a large-circulation magazine. “The entire cover was holographic: a globe on the front cover, 3-D type on the spine, and an advertisement on the back. The front-cover hologram was made using a pulsed laser with an exposure of about seven-billionths of a second (Fournier, 84).” The making of the December 1988 National Geographic cover was a trip worthy of the Society itself: Holographic artists have greatly increased their technical knowledge. They know the discipline and now contribute to the technology as well as the creative process.

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The art form has become international, with major exhibitions being held throughout the world. How is Holography made? There are many steps to this process. A hologram can be made not only with the light waves of a laser, but also with sound waves and other waves in the Electro-magnetic spectrum. Holograms made with X-rays or ultraviolet light have the ability to record images of particles smaller than visible light, such as atoms or molecules. “Microwave holography detects images deep in space by recording the radio waves they emit (Fournier, 90).” The type of holography that uses sound waves to see through solid objects is called, Acoustical holography.

Holography’s unique ability to record and renovate both light and sound waves makes it a precious tool for industry, science, business, and education. The following are applications used today: ? Double-exposed holograms (holographic interferometry) provide researchers with crucial heat-transfer data for the safe design of containers used to transport or store nuclear materials. ? A telephone credit card used in Europe has embossed surface holograms that carry a monetary value. When the card is inserted into the telephone, a card reader discerns the amount due and deducts (erases) the appropriate amount to cover the cost of the call. ? Supermarket scanners read the bar codes on merchandise for the store’s computer by using a holographic lens system to direct laser light onto the product labels during checkout. ? Holography is used to depict the shock wave made by airfoils to locate the areas of highest stress. These holograms are used to improve the design of aircraft wings and turbine blades.

? A holographic lens is used in an aircraft heads-up display to allow a fighter pilot to see critical cockpit instruments while looking straight ahead through the windscreen. Similar systems are being researched by several automobile manufactures. ? Magical, totally unique and lots of fun –candy holograms are the ultimate snack technology. Chocolates and lollipops have been transformed into holographic works of art by molding the candy’s surface into tiny, prism-like ridges. When light strikes the ridges, it is broken into a rainbow of brilliant iridescent colors that display 3-D images. ? Researchers at the University of Alabama in Huntsville are developing the sub- systems of a computerized holographic display.

While the work focuses on providing control panels for remote driving, training simulators and command and control presentations, researchers believe that TV sets with 3-D images might be available for as little as $5,000 within the next ten years. ? Holography is ideal for archival recording of valuables or fragile museum artifacts. For example, the form of a 2300-year-old Iron Age man unearthed from Lindow Moss, a peat bog in Cheshire, England, was recorded by a pulsed laser hologram for study by researchers. A reconstruction model of the Lindow Man was made by the Forensic Science Department of Scotland Yard. ? Scientists at Polaroid Corp. have developed a holographic reflector that promises to make color LCDs whiter and brighter. The secret lies in a transmission hologram that sits behind a LCD and reflects ambient light to produce a white background.

? The arrival of the first prototypical optical computers, which use holograms as storage material for data, could have a dramatic impact on the overall holography market. The yet-to-be-unveiled optical computers will be able to deliver trillions of bits of information faster than the current generation of computers. ? Independent projects at IBM and at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory have demonstrated the use of holograms to locate and retrieve information without knowing its address in a storage medium, but by knowing some of its content. ? To better understand marine phytoplankton, researchers have developed an undersea holographic camera that generates in-line and off-axis holograms of the organisms. A computer controlled stage moves either a video camera or a microscope through the images, and the organisms can be measured as they were in their undersea environment The previous statements were those created by Michael Erbschloe and John Vacca. To create an invention such as holography, a very brilliant brain was needed.

The history of the hologram has impacted our lives greatly today. With that in mind, there are many companies, government agencies and others who are using holograms. Take a Connecticut drivers license for example, it now has a hologram on it. This way it is much harder to create fake identification driver licenses. The way technology has changed over the years is truly an amazing thing to see. If great minds keep existing in the world, imagine what we can have thirty or sixty years from now. Below you will see a diagram of a hologram with all its components. Dennis Gabor sure was an exceptional Hungarian physicist and if it weren’t for him, we may not have holograms today. Bibliography I.

Erbschloe, Michael and Vacca, John. Holograms and Holography. Charles River Publishing. New York 1999 Pgs. 1-676 II.

Fournier, J.M. Holography: The first 50 Years. Springer Verlas Publishing. New York. March 2001 Pgs 1-202 Theater Essays.

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