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Hitler

.. bility in government. A group of men close to the president, including former chancellor Papen, and some powerful industrialists, now believed that Hitler and the Nazis would have to be brought into the government. Hindenburg finally appointed Hitler chancellor on the 30th of January 1933, after refusing him in August 1932. In the cabinet only three of the eleven posts were given to Nazis, and Papen was appointed vice cancellor. Hitler’s New Germany Hitler’s first step of being chancellor was to call for elections to be held in the March of 1933.

Before the elections were held, however, on the 27th of February a week before the election the Reichstag burnt down. A Dutch communist, Marinus van der Lubbe, was caught inside the burning building with firelighters and matches on him. Hitler used this event to arrest many communists and to request Hindenburg to issue an emergency decree, For the Protection of the People and State. The Nazis won 288 seats Hitler now persuaded the Reichstag to pass the Enabling Act, which would alter the constitution and give him the ability to pass laws without the consent of the Reichstag. By a vote of 441 to 94, the Enabling Act was passed.

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He was now the legal dictator of Germany. Hitler’s plans for Germany were three points: *Rearmament *Employment *Expansion Almost as soon as the Nazis came to power, Germany began to rearm. In October 1934 Hitler authorised an increase in the size of the German Army, and in two months it had grown to 280 000 soldiers. In March 1935 he announced the reintroduction of conscription, with plans to build up the army to thirty-six divisions or 500 000 soldiers. The existence of the new German Air Force known as the Luftwaffe was made public. Hitler intended to ignore the military clauses of the Treaty of Versailles.

The navy was not overlooked. The Kriegsmarine was given the task of making the construction of submarines, which had proven to be an effective weapon in World War I. Submarines construction began in 1934 and the number of Unterseeboots or U-Boats grew to fifty-seven. In 1935 the pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee was launched, followed by the Scharnhorst and the Gneisau. The new German Air Force, called the Luftwaffe, took the task of rebuilding Germany’s air power with enthusiasm. By 1939 it boasted 4200 front-line aircraft.

In September 1936 Hitler introduced the Four Year Plan that aimed to make Germany totally self-sufficient in essential commodities such as oil, iron ore, textiles and food. When the Nazis came to power there were six million Germans unemployed, which equated to one-third of the workforce. The Nazis regarded unemployment as an urgent issue. Unemployment in Germany dropped due to a number of issues. The number of women in the workforce dropped as Hitler wanted each family to have many children.

The Nazis also forced people to work. Many public works programs began, the most significant was the plan to construct over three thousand kilometres of four-lane highways, called autobahns, linking the country from east to west. Another factor that reduced employment was the creation of the German Labour Service in 1935. All males over the age of 18 were required to do six months of labour service. In the same year conscription was introduced which also brought the unemployment number down significantly. Hitler’s obsession with race caused his desire creation of a pure racial state for the Aryan race.

He wanted the Reich to dominate Europe. The German people had to acquire territory or living space, which Germany would conquer which he called Leibanstrawn, or German living space in the east. If the German people were to survive and preserve their racial identity, they would have to acquire new territory, and this could only be done by force. Hitler’s expansion campaign began in March 1936, when the German troops re-entered the Rhineland. Then in the March of 1938, Austria was taken into the Reich. Sudetenland returns to Germany.

Once again in March, but in 1939, Slovakia became a separate state and becomes allied to Germany. In the September of 1939, Germany attacks and takes Poland, but Britain, France and their allies declare war on Germany. World War II had begun. Hitler and World War II The Messerschmitt Bf 109 The Messerschmitt Bf 109 was first flown in 1935. It was extremely unpopular but it quickly became the number one multirole fighter of the Luftwaffe. It was tricky and unpleasant to fly but in the hands of a German pilot it was deadly.

The top-scoring Luftwaffe pilots, who had 250 to 350 kills each, their aircraft was only the Bf 109. It was a single-seat fighter, but many were bombers. Designed by Bayerische Flugzeugwerke AG (later Messerschmitt) in 1933, designed mainly around the most powerful engine of that time, the 610hp Junkers Jumo 210A. It made its first flight in early September 1935, but with the 695hp Rolls-Royce Kestrel V. Many versions appeared but the finest of all of the versions was the Bf 109F. Powered by either a 1200hp DB601N engine or a 1350hp DB601E engine. The Bf 109F represented a considerable advance over earlier series in terms of both performance and cleanliness, but most importantly, Messerschmitt gave the Luftwaffe a fighter that could out-manoeuvre the British enemy, the Supermarine Spitfire V.

The entire fuselage was smoother and cleaner aerodynamically, a more rounded rudder and a retractable tail wheel. The wings were rounded off at the tips and performance at all altitudes was better than all previous models. Production ran from the initial F-1 to the F-6. It weighed 4330 lbs. empty and 6054 fully armed.

The performance of the Bf109F was astounding; its top speed was 390mph. Many German fighter pilots felt that he 109F carried the basic design to its peak. More than 2000 Bf109Fs were built, but it was replaced by the Gustav or Bf109G less than a year later. Plane Messerschmitt Bf109F Messerschmitt Bf109G Engine 1300hp DB601E 1475hp DB605A-1 Dimensions Length: 9m Length:9.04m Weights 4330lb empty, 6045lb full 5893lb empty, 6940lb full Performance Max. speed 390mph Max. speed 428mph Armament 2 15mm machine-guns 1 20mm cannon 2 13mm machine-guns plus 2 20mm cannons or 1 30mm cannon History First flight: 1939 First flight: 1940 The 109f and Spitfire V were fairly closely matched, but when the Spitfire IX was introduced to combat the Focke Wulf 190, the 109F was outclassed.

Fighter pilots always wanted to fly faster and higher, and Messerschmitt came to the rescue with the Bf109G, with the more powerful Daimler Benz 605A. The introduction of the Gustav was not greeted with enthusiasm by the German fighter pilots. Its tremendous speed and good high altitude performance were welcomed, as was the powerful armament. The Bf109G or Gustav had particularly good high-altitude performance, so a new high pressure cabin had to be fitted. The aircraft was very heavy.

It was fast but it did not handle well. Engineers then fitted a nitrous oxide injection system, which resulted in 406mph at 28 500ft. The Gustav, which had started to come off production lines in 1942, was perhaps the first aircraft to be designed as a platform for a variety of weapons systems. A well-flown Gustav presented the RAF’s Spitfire pilots with a formidable foe- they could out-turn the Spitfire, yet the Gustav was out-gunned. During 1942 a total of 2664 Messerschmitt Bf109s were produced.

The Gustav was camouflaged by a three-tone grey colour scheme proved effective over the low countries and the North Sea. The Bf109F and G as well as earlier variants served in the all of the major campaigns in Europe and Africa, but the most significant was the Battle of Britain. Messerschmitt Bf109 Year 10 History Assignment: Hitler Investigative Study Peter Banco Bibliography Bibliography *”The Guide to Axis Fighters of WWII” by Bill Gunston, 1980 *”German Aircraft of WWII” by Kenneth Munson, 1978 *”Take Off” by Chris Dorrington, 1993 *”Republic to Reich”by K.J Mason, 1996 History Essays.

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