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History

History title = Aztecs papers = Aztecs According to their own history, the Aztecs, who called themselves th..”> subject = High School -> History title = Aztecs papers = Aztecs According to their own history, the Aztecs, who called themselves the Tenochca or Mexica, started as a small nomadic tribe originating from a place called Aztlan. Aztlan existed somewhere in the southern part of California or the north west of Mexico. At this time they were Nahuatl speaking. During the twelfth century they started a period of wandering and in the thirteenth century they came across Mexico’s central valley. There they decided to settle. The reason for this is a prophecy.

The prophecy said that when they saw an eagle sitting on a cactus with a snake in its mouth that was where they were to build their great civilization. For that reason they called it Tenochtitlan, meaning place of the cactus. Since the prophecy was filled upon an island in the middle of a small lake, called Lake Texcoco, land became short. They built Tenochtitlan in the year thirteen twenty five BC. They started as a small struggling village continually fighting with other Mexican city-states.

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Tenochtitlan acted as a place of refuge. Aztec Empire At first the Aztecs where ruled by the mightiest of the city-states in central Mexico known as Azcapotzlaco. They helped Azcapotzlaco to conquer surrounding territory in the early fourteen hundreds. By fourteen twenty-eight they had Azcopotzlaco itself with the help of neighboring allies. Tenochtitlan, by the year fourteen thirty-one, with an alliance with the neighboring city-states of Texcoco and Tlacopan had become and independent city-state itself.

This triple alliance of three city-states soon controlled all of Mexico’s central valley. Tenochtitlan, as the dominate city-state in this alliance, became a base for a program of military expansion and conquest. However the program was left incomplete even when the empire fell to the Spaniards. To connect the Capitol to the mainland the Aztecs built a network of canals, bridges and three stone causeways. Aztecs didn’t rule directly over the lands they concord. Instead they demanded tribute such as food, clothing, woven blankets, precious stones, furs, feathers, fine woods and slaves or captives.

As a result these products became available in the marketplace and common in people’s homes. The emperor’s power came from his control of the military, wich was exceedingly large. Under him was his chief deputy, who would communicate with the gods and relate the gods wishes to the Emperor. Below him there was a council of four noble princes and three honored classes of warriors who managed day to day affairs in the empire. Below them were four social classes, nobles, commoners, serfs and slaves. Nobles: the nobles owned private plots of land or shared land with other families.

Commoners: The commoners were the largest group who included priests, merchants, artisans, and farmers who held land in common with the nobles. Serfs: The majority of the serfs farmed the nobles land. Slaves: The slaves were the lowest class of people. They were socially equal with the criminals and people who could not pay debts. Also woman and children who were prisoners of war worked as slaves for the nobles. Aztec culture For one hundred years the Aztecs of Tenochtitlan held the greatest amount of power in all of Mexico. Following the model of established town dwellers, who had been living there for over one thousand years, they became civilized and sophisticated. The Aztec civilization was made up of many loosely connected urban communities.

Each local group of citizens owned a piece of land. Those groups of people were called a capulli. Each capulli consisted of a few families that jointly owned a piece of land. Since the people were generally farmers, a part of the annual crop that was harvested from the land was given to the state as a kind of tax. As the empire started to grow land for farming became tight.

One of the Aztecs greatest innovations was the chinampas, witch were rafts on witch mud from the bottom of the lake, wich was extremely fertile, was piled and crops grew from that. With this innovation the Aztec empire surged to near three hundred thousand people. This resent growth made it bigger than any European city at that time. Tenochtitalan became large and many open plazas and market places. In these market places were products being sold by merchants that traveled all over mesoamerica thus resulting in rare commodities becoming commonplace.

Aztec technology was dependant upon human skills rather than upon mechanical equipment. Although the wheel was known to the Aztecs it wasn’t utilized. It was only used for childrens pull-along toys. No vehicles incorporated the wheel, and machines didn’t use rotary motion. Iron was unknown to the Aztecs as was steel.

Copper and bronze were known however, and they were used in tools. Aztec jewelers made beautiful jewelry out of gold, silver and other known alloys. Glass, glazes, gunpowder, plows and alphabetic writing, wich were common among Spaniards, didn’t exist in Mexico. However lack of these seemingly precious items didn’t stop the Aztecs from making art and architecture that was amazing to the Europeans. Wheat, barley, cattle, horses, sheep, and goats were absent from Mexico until they were introduced by the Europeans. Without these things the Aztecs were surprisingly efficient farmers who fully utilized the use of irrigation, terracing, and fertilization of the fields.

As the Spanish invaders soon found and became appreciative of, Aztec Mexico was very rich and civilized although it’s customs and technology differed greatly from that of Europe. The state controlled almost every aspect of the Aztecs life. Another thing that amazed the spaniards was the Aztecs complex calendar. It consisted of twenty named days, with symbols for each day, that was based on the motion of the sun. The Aztec calendar has been proven incredibly accurate by today’s scientists, in fact it has been proven more accurate than our own. It was not uncommon for the name of an Aztec child to have the name of the day on which it was born.

All of the Aztecs boys and girls were required to attend school. Schooling for boys mainly consisted of the martial arts and warfare as the main area of study for girls was homemaking and weaving. Both boys and girls could learn how to read, interpret the calendar, use machinery, make prophecies and debate. Both boys and girls were required to learn about Aztec history as well as religion. Aztec Religion As most of Mexico, the Aztecs worshiped many gods, each of which demanded sacrifices and offerings. The Aztecs considered themselves the chosen people of HUITZILOPOCHTLI, the sun and war god, for who they conquered all surrounding lands. Huitzilopochtli shared the main temple, a pyramid at the center of Tenochtitlan, with Tlaloc, the rain god.

Who was very important to farmers in a land where they were always threatened with drought. Another god of importance was QUETZALCOATL, the feathered serpent, patron of the arts and crafts and the god of self sacrifice. In fact this god was so important that in a year the Aztecs were said to have sacrificed twenty thousand prisoners. This was because it was the custom to sacrifice every male prisoner. The woman and children prisoners were sold into slavery to live a life of service to the nobles.

Sacrifice was also important because the Aztecs believed that the sun ran off blood.

History

The Struggle Against Christianity in Germany
The struggle against Christianity in Germany assumed greater proportions by the end of 1941. On Nov. 10 the official Vatican radio station in Rome broadcast, without comment, a catechism published by the German weekly Nordland, organ of the “German Believers in God,” in its issue of Sept. 15. There the principles of the German faith were given in the form of questions and answers. Some of the answers read: “We National Socialists are believers in God because in us as German men veneration of the divine and faith in it are impressed in an indelible manner in our blood and being. We National Socialists believe: in the divine; in the unity of the universe; in Mother Earth; in destiny; in the creative force of our blood; in our people and its mission; in our Fuehrer; in the National Socialist peoples community; in ourselves.” In the catechism it was further said: “The divine in its highest form is personified in the German people because … the individual only within his people can develop his divine faculties and energies or rather only in the people can he live. What derives from the fact that the divine in the highest form is personified in the people? It derives from it that service for the Fuehrer, for the people, and for the fatherland is divine service. To believe in our people and in its mission means: to have unshakeable conviction that our people represents the highest worth of all humanity on earth; to follow the will of nature according to which the best people is called upon to command; to know that to be led by the best people redounds from the necessity of things in benediction on other nations; to work, sacrifice ourselves and fight indefatigably for the ascent and victory of our people.”
A book circulated by the end of November in 200,000 copies in Germany, especially among the Elite Guard and the youth and called God and People, outlined the national German faith which was to replace the Catholic and Protestant churches. The book had no author named, but the unknown writer identified his views with those of the Nazi party and of its Fuehrer. The wide and encouraged circulation at a time of extreme paper shortage was proof enough of the semi-official character of the book. There it was said: “We Germans have been called by fate to be the first to break with Christianity; it is to be an honor … For two thousand years the Church had time to begin molding mankind into a cleaner, higher striving race. The Church not only did nothing, but has degenerated into a restraining impediment. Finally, the Fuehrer and his movement have come, decried as heretic, to perceive and form true divine will. Christianity has failed and thus runs in its death hour. A thousand bonds tie us to the Christian belief. But one blow will make us free. To make Germans strong and ripe for this step is our task, our holiest obligation.” This new German faith is in no way dogmatic: “German faith will not dictate to anyone his relationship to God. Everyone seeks his own way. But no one seeks it in Rome or Jerusalem. Germany is our Holy Land. It will be our religion … We want faith which flames out of the depths of German nature and out of German hearts.” The Catholic bishops protested against the spread of this book in a letter read from all pulpits, in which they said: “The existence of Christianity and of the Church in Germany is at stake. Recently a book has been spread in hundreds of thousands of copies which asserts we Germans have to choose between Christ and the German people. With flaming indignation, we German Catholics refuse to make such a choice.”
At the beginning of 1942 Dr. Alfred Rosenberg, who has been one of the spiritual fathers of National Socialism, has released for publication a 30 point program defining the “religion of National Socialism.” The 30 points, which may be of immense importance for the future of Germany and of any German-controlled parts of the world, in view of the position of the author and the official character of the program, are the following: The National Reichs Church will take over all existing churches and chapels, which will become national churches. While no German is obliged to join the Church, that Church itself is called to serve its single doctrinerace and people. Its domain is limited by the territorial frontiers of the Reich and its colonies. Other churches or religious associations, above all those based on international bodies or directed from abroad, will not be tolerated in Germany. The National Reich Church has one immutable objective, to destroy that Christian belief whose tenets conflict with the German heart and the German mentality and which were introduced into Germany in that unfortunate year 800, when Charlemagne subjugated the pagan Saxons. In the National Reich Church there will be no pastors or theologians, only the national “orators” of the Reich will be allowed to speak at the services which will be held on Saturday night. The “orators” of the national church will be state officials; none of them will be allowed to do anything to perpetuate the Christian faith. No Church or sect can possess any parcel of German soil, for it is not the Church that conquered and tilled the land, but the German people. The printing and the dissemination of the Bible, as well as of all Sunday papers with religious content are to be forbidden in the Reich, and no Bibles are to be imported. Hitler’s Mein Kampf contains the principles of the racial morals under which the German people must live. By that book all Germans must live. All future editions of that book shall contain its present number of pages and contents unmodified. This most saintly book will be placed on the altars of all churches, with a sword to its left, while all Bibles and crosses have to be removed. The orators of the Church will during the services explain the contents of Mein Kampf. There will be no remission of sins and no baptisms in the National Reich Church. Parents of new born German children will swear that they are of pure Aryan descent and that they will bring up the child in the pure German spirit for the German people. At the end of each school year, on Good Friday, a day of youth shall be celebrated in the Church. Kneeling in the Church is forbidden as undignified for a German. The oath will be rendered with the right hand touching the sword on the altar. Atop of the Churches will be found no longer the Cross, but the symbol of invincible Germany, the swastika. These are briefly the tenets of the new national church as envisaged by the leaders of National Socialism. Only the future will be able to tell whether Germany has really proven invincible and whether she will live under the sign of the swastika instead of the sign of the Cross which for 1,200 years has been the foundation of German civilization as a part of the common culture of civilized mankind.

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