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The pharmaceutical industry is developing 256 drugs and
vaccines to target infectious diseases ranging from hepatitis
to influenza, according to a survey to be released Wednesday
by the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of

Infectious diseases were responsible for nearly one-third of
all worldwide deaths in 1996, the survey said. AIDS is a
major contributor to the death toll, but those drugs were
considered a separate category and not included in the
survey. The industry has 98 drugs in development to fight
the disease.

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Vaccines are the focus of the most attention, the study
found, with 96 under development for a broad range of
diseases. The survey said there are 32 new antibiotics are
under development. Of the total agents being developed, 69
are being tested in the lab while the remaining 187 are in
either clinical trials or awaiting approval by the FDA
Hepatitis, tuberculosis and malaria all are prevalent in the
developing world, however hepatitis is a greater focus of
pharmaceutical research because it is also a significant
problem in the United States. About 5 million people in the
United States suffer from a form of hepatitis.

Agents for sexually transmitted diseases, antibiotics and
antivirals also are major focuses of company research, the
study showed.

Diseases such as anthrax and smallpox have become a major
concerns since Sept. 11 and the subsequent anthrax attacks.
The survey, however, was largely conducted before the
attacks and so is not a useful barometer of the industry’s
attention to such diseases.

In the immediate aftermath of the terrorist and anthrax
attacks, pharmaceutical companies offered to donate drugs
and allow their scientists to use their labs for government
work. Some asked the Food and Drug Administration to
approve their antibiotics as a treatment for anthrax.

Last week, Aventis donated a recently discovered reserve of
smallpox vaccine to the government. But beyond that there
have been no high-profile announcements of collaborations
between industry and government.

Dr. Michael Friedman, a Pharmacia Corp. executive acting
as a liaison between the companies and the government in
strengthening the country’s bioterrorism defense, says the
industry will announce a major educational campaign about
bioterrorism next week. He declined to provide specifics.

“Until recently there was not much attention paid to
bioterrorism,” said Dr. Friedman. “Companies are in the
process of planning right now. Targets are being identified.”
Eli Lilly & Co. is testing one of its cancer drugs as a
smallpox treatment. The move came after sending samples
of several of its medicines to the government for testing as
potential candidates to target bioterrorism threats.

Lilly said it hasn’t changed the overall focus of its research,
but now when it tests potential antibiotics or antivirals it
broadens the scope.

“Now we have more of a dual strategy. When we look at
compounds we think maybe it will be an effective agent
against a disease on the CDC (Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention list of bioterrorism diseases,” said Gail
Cassel, vice president of infectious disease research at
Indianapolis-based Lilly.

But Cassel and Friedman agree that companies must
continue to develop new antibiotics because resistance is a
major problem.

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Often we take our health, or the absence of illness, disease, or injury
for granted until we become sick. It is then that we recognize the worth of
being without ailments. It is then that we appreciate feeling strong, robust
and healthy.Being healthy and, being physically and mentally sound, is
associated with one’s satisfaction with life.Developmental health
psychologists – specialists who study the interaction of age, behavior, and
health and gerontologists – specialists in the science of aging — are piecing
together the details of diet, exercise, personality and behavior that make it
practical to shoot for 80, or even 120.People approaching middle age can
expect a bonus of several years of extra living thanks to continuing medical
progress against cancer, heart disease and stroke.

Specialists in the field of aging, developmental health psychologists,
and gerontologist , concentrate their area of study on determining health
status over the course of adulthood, and determining the nature and origin of
age-related diseases. They are also concerned with describing the effects of
health on behavior and describing the effects of behavior on health. The goals
of these specialists are:prevention of diseases, preservation of health,
and improved quality of health for those suffering from disability and disease.

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What does it mean to be healthy? Health is a state of complete physical
, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease, illness
or infirmity. It is important to distinguish between disease and health.

Disease is the prognosis of a particular disorder with a specific cause and
characteristic symptoms. On the other hand, illness is the existence of disease
and, the individual’s perception of and response to the disease.

Whether in sickness or in health age and the progression through life
play a large part in our health and our developmental status. The role of age
in regard to health is listed below:
– Most young adults are in good health and experience few limitations or
disabilities. Nearly 71% of adults older than 65 living in a community report
their health as excellent, good, or very good. – Health and mobility decline
with age especially after age 80. Disease is more common among older adults. –
Most of the diseases of later life have their origin years earlier. – Income is
related to perception of health. – The older the individual, the more difficult
it is to recover from stress. – As an individual age, acute conditions decrease
in frequency while chronic conditions increase in frequency. 4/5 of adults over
65 have at least one chronic condition. – Older adults may have multiple
disorders and sensory deficits that may interact. Treatments may also interact.

– In contrast to younger age groups, the elderly are likely to suffer from
physical health problems that are multiple, chronic, and treatable but not
curable. Acute illness may be superimposed on these conditions.

Although there are factors that affect our health and the aging process
that are not in our control , In a World Health article , K. Warner Schaie(1989),
research director of the Andrus Gerontology Center at the University of Southern
California, cites three reasons for optimism about future old age: The control
of childhood disease, better education, and the fitness revolution.(p.2)
The control of childhood disease often eliminates problems that occur
later in life as a result of these diseases. Instead of going away, the minor
assaults suffered by the body from disease, abuse and neglect can have “sleeper”
effects. For example Chicken pox in a child can lead much later in life to the
itching diseases known as shingles. Vaccines and other medicine have eliminated
many of the childhood diseases. Schaie predicts that people who will become
old 30 or 40 years from now will not have childhood diseases. Most people who
are now old have had them all.

Better education is also a reason for prolonged and healthier lives.

Where a grade school education was typical for the older generation, more than
half of all Americans now 30 or 40 years old have completed at least high school,
and studies show that people with more education live longer. They get better
jobs, suffer less economical stress, and tend to be more engaged with life and
more receptive to new ideas.

Finally, the fitness revolution has changed our habits with respect to
diet and exercise and self-care.An article in Generations, Joyce Carrol
Oates (1993) states, ” per capita consumption of tobacco has dropped twenty-six
percent over the past 15 years, and the drop is accelerating, promising a
decrease in lung cancer. ” Life-style changes and improved treatment of
hypertension have already produced a dramatic national decrease in
In addition being aware of and accepting aging is an important process
in aging. It is important to recognize that life not only has a beginning and a
middle but also an end. It is important to recognize the live cycle and all that
goes with it. The adult life cycle is divided into three main parts: Young
adults, middle-aged, and older adults. There are characteristics of each
division of adulthood.

First,we will look at young adults. They are in generally good
health. Respiratory aliments are their primary health problems (cold, headache,
and tiredness). Allergies are their most common chronic illness. Fatal diseases
are rare. The leading causes of deaths are for males, accidents and for
females cancer. Aids is also a threat for this age group.

The next area of concern is the middle-aged adults. There is a drastic
change in health status from young adult to middle adulthood. Daily illnesses
begin to occur such as: respiratory ailments, and musculoskeletal ailments.

Chronic conditions begin emerging that limits daily activities such as arthritis,
hypertension, chronic sinusitis, heart conditions, and hearing impairments.

Fatal diseases also begin to appear for example: heart disease, hypertension,
diabetes, arteriosclerosis, emphysema, and cancer. The leading causes of
death among the middle-age are heart disease and cancer.

Again there is a drastic change in health status from middle-age to
older adults. Musculoskeletal problems are more common and more severe. Acute
problems become more severe. Chronic conditions are dominant and more severe.

Death rates rise rapidly among the elderly. The leading cause of death is heart
disease, stroke, and cancer.

In summary, people’s evaluation of their physical health decline with
age. Daily symptoms change with age. Acute conditions decrease with age.

Chronic conditions increase with age. Nonfatal and life threatening diseases
increase steadily with age.

Of equal concern is the effect of gender and race on health and aging.

However, inadequate attention has been given to the range of variations in
social, cultural, and health characteristics within and between minorities and
women. The time has come for more deliberate, purposeful, and thoughtful
explanations of the effects of race and gender on health.

Understanding adult development requires an understanding of the
relationship between health, disease, disability and aging.Understanding and
not being afraid of the aging process may slow the process.

Oates, Joyce Carrol. (1993, Spring/Summer). The ageless self. Generations,
(Vol. 17
Issue 2, p13).

Schaie, Warner K. (1989, Nov). Looking ahead. World Health, pp.2-4.

Health, Disease, and Disability


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