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Geneticist Construction

I. A. The construction of a geneticist follows a difficult path of education,
preparation, and hard work. B. Genetic Engineering C. Scope 1- accomplishments
2- job description 3- education 4- opportunities 5- future 6- (interview) –
Personal insight – Attraction to job II. Background III. Accomplishments IV. Job
Description & Opportunities V. Education & salary VI. Interview
-Attraction, Personal Insight -Future VII. Conclusion- Why I would or wouldnt
be a genetic engineer? The Construction of a Geneticist The construction of a
geneticist is a person that follows a difficult path of education, preparation,
and hard work. Geneticists along with all branches of Genetic Engineering have
grown in numbers and importance over the last hundred years. Geneticists have
accomplished things that Isaac Asimov and authors like him only dreamed about.


What was science fiction then is science fact now, the cycle continues through
this day. (Facklam 16) The genetic field will continue to grow until every
aspect of life is perfect, but that will take quite a while. Career
Opportunities in Genetics are everywhere within the biological community. They
may work in colleges and universities, research institutions, medical
institution, and commercial enterprises of many kinds. Every work environment is
unique, and categorizes overlap-but certain general trends exist. (Career
Opportunities in Genetics 9) Genetic Engineering has a long past and an even
longer future, however, to enter the field a person must have a strong
background in sciences and intensive training. Despite the controversy of
Genetics, Courtney Sailes of the Genentech Inc. has accomplished such training.

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He is working in the biochemistry division and has an important impact people
across the world. Gregor Mendel is known as the father of Modern Genetics,
however he was not the start of the long chain of genetic engineers. (Microsoft
Encarta 98) Genetic engineers can be traced back to 6000 BC when Yeast was used
to make beer by Sumerians and Babylonians. Before that the domestication of
animals was the most complex example of genetic engineering. Todays
geneticists still work with animals and plants, however, instead of just
studying them, they can create them. Geneticists also try to perfect and alter
deficiencies to help solve problems in todays world. Geneticists creation
of bigger fruit, vegetables and vaccinations help people live everyday. Genetic
Engineering may one day eliminate horrible genetic defects. (Facklam 79) Genetic
Engineering is a science that can alter the ways in which we live, but not with
out social and legal problems to solve as we go along. (Facklam sleeve) The
discovery of the structure of DNA resulted in an explosion of research in
molecular biology and genetics, paving the way for the biotechnology revolution.


Genetic engineering became a reality when a man-made gene was used to
manufacture a human protein in bacteria for the first time. Biotech companies
and universities were off to the races, and the world will never be the same
again. (Biotechnology Timeline 1977- Present) Accomplishments done in part of
genetic engineering have made the earth a better and safer place to live.


Hybridization of rice and wheat has increased food output by more than 100%.

(Encarta 98) Geneticist across the world are attempting to stop the spread of
deadly cells strains, if there is a virus or bacteria there is a cure and a way
to stop it. The vaccination of polio, the cure for leprosy, and small pox all
are possible due to the minds and wills of genetic engineers. On July 25, 1979,
Louise Brown became the worlds first test-tube-baby, hailed by many as a
biological breakthrough and condemned by other as a way for man to control and
manipulate life. (Facklam 87) The cloning of Dolly, the lamb, and other animals
allows scientist to research cures for illness with little deviation in
subjects. Almost all breakthroughs in the medical research field are directly
related to genetic engineering. Geneticist play an important role in everything
around us, they give us more than just better creations they give us a better
understanding of life as we know it (C.O. in G. 14), Geneticist is just a
general title given to several occupations. Each specific occupation consists of
its own environment, but share many common traits. Population Biology,
Population Genetics, Evolution, Evolutionary Genetics, Sociology, Molecular
Biology, Molecular Genetics, Agriculture, Plant Genetics, Biochemistry,
Biochemical Genetics, Cytogenetics, Cytology, Medicine, Medical Genetics, Law,
Neurobiology, Behavioral Genetics, Development Genetics, and Development Biology
are such specifications. (1) Many geneticists work in academic institutions in
biological sciences departments, they divide their time into teaching and
research. These geneticist joined by their students, often strive for the same
discovery as part of the curriculum. Generally the research goal is to better
understand basic biological mechanisms at the frontiers of science, and often
the answers cannot be predicted. (9) These research projects are long-term and
may take several years to complete insuring job security. Research institutions
are mostly nonprofit organizations sponsored by private, federal or commercial
agencies. In all of these cases, individuals tend to work within research teams
ranging in sizes from two to twenty. Geneticists in a research institution have
the advantage of pursuing exciting research of their own design, with a minimum
of distracting obligations. (9) Commercial enterprises give a specific
objectives and guidelines to the geneticist. The accomplishments are directly
seen in society. Pharmaceutical companies utilize molecular genetics to develop
new medicines and vaccines; DNA cloning methods can use bacteria or yeast as
factories to produce large amounts of the product of an isolated gene, such as
insulin. The recent techniques of genetic engineering are becoming a major part
of industrial efforts. Some biotechnology companies specialize in this new
methodology. The companys administrators usually decide the project goals for
the research team. Since these projects focus on short-term achievements.


Geneticists in applied research programs can better predict their results than
can geneticists in academia or research institutions. (10) Agricultural
companies integrate breeding programs and molecular biology in new and ingenious
ways to improve crop plants. This produces higher yield and better quality of
foods. Animal breeding companies are also trying the same ideas to create better
livestock. The benefit of genetics in conquering disease is utilized in the
medical research institutions and hospitals. Research projects are under the
control and initiative of the team leader, and tend to be tightly coupled to the
heath-care responsibilities of the group. In addition to carrying out research,
the M.D. team members may also spend considerable time on medical care and
clinical services. (12) As exciting as the field is, only those who truly
dedicated should chose to become a geneticist. Geneticists often work long
hours, researching their project. However, the working conditions are often laid
back and casual due to their involvement with chemicals. The environment is
usually comfortable and relaxing for best performance from the researchers and
scientists. (Sailes) Pasteur, a world-renowned French chemist and biologist,
that founded the science of microbiology said, “chance favors the prepared
mind.” In order to be prepared you must go to school and take specific courses
to become a geneticist. A geneticist must be prepared for every possible
situation that may arise in their field. During their high school years, a
geneticist should take biology, chemistry, physics, and advanced mathematics.


Once in college, a geneticist should take courses in all the sciences to
solidify their understanding of their basic concepts. Specialization in genetics
at the undergraduate level is unusual; it is more common to major in biology or
biochemistry. Chemistry and Biology are stressed in different fields for the
maximum amount of knowledge. Two or three years of study are recommended for a
Masters degree. Except for entry-level salary; $35,000 to $50,000 and
benefits, a Masters degree does not generally broaden the nature of
laboratory job opportunities, in order to do truly independent research a Ph.D.

or an M.D. is required. MDs generally consist of four years of classes and
clinical experience beyond the bachelors degree. A five-year study is needed
after a Bachelor or Masters degree to obtain a Ph.D. (C.O. in G. 14) A person
with a Ph.D. in any genetic field on average has a starting salary of $48,796 to
$89,142 plus benefits. The education needed is based on a long and tiresome
process. Along with the studying, most students take part in an apprenticeship
ranging from $12,000 to $30,000 to help pay for college, and also acquire needed
lab experience. A bio-organic chemist for example, must have at least a year of
organic laboratory experience and at least one year of organic synthesis course
work. A Bachelors of Science in Chemistry is mandatory for most genetic
positions. Geneticist use roughly 95% of the day applying there academically
acquired knowledge. This also includes the sciences that they took during their
high school years. (Sailes) For that reason it is important that geneticists
understand their schooling. Courtney Sailes a researcher at the bio-organic
chemistry division of Genentech Inc. has involved most of his life in genetics.


In high school he wanted to become a doctor and went to study at the College of
Chemistry at the University of California at Berkeley. The close relation
between a medical field and genetic engineering field was alarming and he
decided to look into the organic chemistry course work. The idea of being able
to develop a drug that will help fight human disease was the concept that
captured his career search. He wishes that somebody advised him that to be a
research associate you just need to “study hard, try to understand, ask a lot
of questions, and be organized. Make sure not to get discouraged by compounds
that dont work, stay optimistic and look at the overall picture and the
overall goal, keep trying.” (Interview- Sailes) The future of genetic
engineering is looking good. There are many new jobs and areas that have not
been touched yet. Clones for organ donning, increased crop production, disease
vaccinations, and cures for the incurable all hold the key to the future of the
common geneticist. Why I would or would not want to be a Geneticist? I would
want to be a geneticist because of their impact on society and the future of our
lives. Geneticists make existing food products better and safer for the
consumer. They allow people with a disease a new chance at life using vaccines
and genetic screening. Soon geneticists will be able to fix defects before
people are born, giving them a better chance to survive in the world. Being a
geneticist could mean that I might discover the genes that allow people to
change certain aspects about themselves. I could make someones eyes a
different color with a simple injection. I could clone organs and limbs. The
ability to clone organs and limbs is not that far off, all scientists need to
learn is what environment an organ can naturally grow in. The ability to clone
organs would slowly eliminate organ banks, the long search for organs and the
powerful chemicals used to stop rejection of the new organs. The organs could be
made and implanted in the individual; since the organ is really his own there
would be little to no rejection of the organ. The process would save millions of
people within just a few years. The ability to clone eyes or eye tissue could
eliminate blindness. The ability to clone limbs would give hope to millions that
are disabled. The possibilities are endless. Along with the benefits there are
negative sides of being a geneticist. Geneticists have to deal with the
controversial “playing god issue.” There are countless numbers of
regulations made to deter scientist from doing work with genetics. Along with
political issues, mistakes and experiments can be deadly. While engineering a
cure for the common cold a deadly virus could be created. Genetic screening
could cause millions of deaths due to a miscalculation. Scientists currently do
not know enough about living systems to perform DNA surgery without creating
some mutations, which could be harmful to the environment and our health.


Geneticists are experimenting with very delicate, yet powerful forces of nature,
without full knowledge of the repercussions. A deadly species of animal could be
accidentally created in a cloning experiment. Despite the controversy and side
effects of genetic engineering, I would like to become a geneticist. The genetic
field covers more and more jobs every year, almost promising employment. The
future for a geneticist is prodigious. It takes hard work, time, and patients to
be a genetic engineer, but I believe it is worth it.


Bibliography
Work Cited “Genetic Engineering,” Microsoft Encarta, 1998. Sailes, Courtney.


Interview. E-Mail, emailprotected, March 1998. Facklam, Margery and
Howard. From Cell to Clone. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1979.


“Biotechnology Timeline 1977- Present,” Access Excellence Genetech, 1998.


Career Opportunities in Genetics. Maryland: The Genetics Society of America
Administrative Office, 1997.

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