Francisco Jos Goya y Lucientes Born on March 30, 1746, in Aragon province of Spain. The reason for this mans two last names is that it is a Spanish custom to take on both parents last names to make a combination for their own, his fathers last name was Goya and his mothers, Lucientes, but he is most widely known by the name Goya. He lived in a very common family of the time, he worked as a gilder for a short while with his father in the town he was born in, Fuendetodos. But due to the economical needs of his family, Goya was sent to the fields and he suffered through long days of manual labor to make ends meet. In Goyas adolescence, his family moved to Zaragoza because his father wanted a better life for his family. There he was sent to a parish school where his artistic talent blossomed.
Goyas father saw the great aspirations of his child so he sent him to Jos Luzns Art Academy. Goya was a wild and crazy young man with a very rowdy and cutting edge attitude. He and his lifelong friend, Martin Zapater, always used to cause a few rumbles in the streets of Zaragoza. But when one of his little rumbles caused some people to die, Goya was forced out of the religious city. So the young lad of 19 sought out for Madrid.
In Madrid he applied for admission to the Royal Academy of San Fernando. The painting he made for the competition was rejected, which surprised him because his artwork wasnt normally rejected. But the disappointed artist got over it and went to Italy. In Italy, Goya studied about various Italian artists. In the two years he spent in this glamorous country he developed a fascination with the work of Giovanni Battista Tiepolo. Tiepolos work intrigued the mind of Goya, and some of Goyas work has a little of Tiepolo in it.
Studying was not the only thing that kept Goya occupied, he had also entered a painting contest in Parma where he won second place. Goya also reverted to his rambunctious behavior which forced him to flee, again. Goya then went back to Zaragoza where he painted parts of the Lady of Pilar Church. Here the young artist was introduced to a court painter of the Royal Academy, Francisco Bayeu. Because of Bayeus close connections to King Charles III, Goya was able to get a commission to design cartoons that depicted stories of Spanish life for the curtains of the palace.
He then painted 45 admirable cartoons which made his work recognizable to the Spanish court. He had also fallen in love with Bayeus sister, Josefa, in the process and he later married her. At this high point in his life, he received his first great commission, to paint a portrait of the king. This was a high honor and he knew from that point his life couldnt get better. He was right, for his popularity grew greater and greater. Goya was commissioned to paint the royal family and other prestigious families, churches, chapels, and tapestries were at his disposal.
He held the highest positions an artist could take, from director of the Royal Academy to royal painter of Charles IV. Goya led a life of joy and glamour, then he met the Dutchess of Alba. She was an extravagant woman whom he painted many portraits of. But while working with her he became very sick which resulted in him becoming deaf. This was the point in his life where he began a duration of solitude which brought out his analytical side and developed him as a thinker. He began creating etchings which satirized the political, social, and religious affairs of society.
He did this using his studies of expressionism. Goya, like many other thinkers of his time, was threatened be the Inquisition. Goya then had to give in to the Kings ways and he continued as his royal painter. Goya then continued jumping back and forth on the bad side or the good side of his superiors. His methods had always contradicted with society.
His artwork said things that went against many standards of religion to politics, but he always included his expressionistic ways in the all of his artwork. He depicted various events and stories through his artwork. From Napoleons invasion to the just the mere Bulls of Bordeaux, Goya always was able to create a piece which was not only meant to tell a story but to also present the feelings and emotions which are sparked by the techniques and the color of the pieces. Again, Goya had become that same rebel he was before but this time it shows in his artwork. One piece of artwork that embodies some of his expressionistic methods is in his piece or pieces The Clothed Maja and The Naked Maja.
These were oil paintings where Goya draws the same woman in the same position with the only difference being that she is clothed in one and not in the other. He captures the fullness and the embodiment of a womans body using different depictions. He did this through using a great contrast of value, which is present in almost all of his pieces. Dark and light tend to flow with each other and they complement with on another. In these two works you see the naked one being bright and fluid, simple once described through color.
In a metaphoric sense this piece shows the power of simple expression and openness, with its simple contrast of value and a brightness which brings out a pleasant and happy emotion. The clothed piece, on the other hand, symbolized the sadness of covering ones true self. He did this using a greater concentration of darkness in his piece rather than light to better compliment his other piece. I think it invokes more dreary feelings and a bitter and glum atmosphere because shadows are more evident. As Elizabeth Ripley states Goyas use of brilliant color along with light and shade in his graphic work to achieve dramatic effect influenced the impressionist movement,.
this is indeed true but I think this statement isnt as broadened, I think Goyas work has influenced all art styles. Because of his courage to stand up against the system, Goya has become a great contributor of todays art. This is because he was the first artist to comment on the events of society within his art with great emotion. He survived through the Baroque period with a style of his own. He uniquely depicted scenes and personalities with the simple art methods of value and color.
This is why I chose him, his methods may be simple but he is able to tell stories with his art work, this is one thing I aspire to do. I am also greatly interested in his vast experience with value. The way he ties this in to all of his pieces to better express his emotions is just amazing. I try to do this in my art, like in my triptych which I had in the sky and with the water but it sometimes doesnt turn out like I expect it to. Im sure itll take a lot of practice though to get to be as good as Goya.