Divided Attention Divided Attention Do all of our cognitive processes withdraw from the same cognitive bank? How is it that we are able to drive a car, chew gum, talk on the phone and listen to music all at once? Is it possible that our mental resources are somehow specialized in such a way so that different tasked are allocated different resources at different strengths? Our brain is unfathomable in it’s ability distribute responsibility to different regions and the storage of it’s memory will and can never be known. With technology many questions are being answered and with regards to divided attention. Brain imaging techniques such as the PET scan uses 2-deoxyglucose, which is injected into the patient’s carotid artery. Because of its similarity to glucose (brain fuel) it is absorbed by active energy consuming neurons. Fortunately this form of glucose derivative does not become metabolized hence giving us the researcher the ability to tell where the activity is located with a precision of a few millimeters. The PET scan was at on time the only tool used to find the location of neurological processes but now they have fMRI, which is less time consuming and less messy.
With these imaging tools, the use of the computerized tachistoscope and the educated inferences by highly educated individuals we are getting closer to understanding the brain and the complex web of processes present in divided attention. There are two theories that try to explain the phenomena of divided attention. The first states that all tasks are basically the same in regards to where they obtain their resources. The second calls for a more complex task-specific resource pool. General resource theory states no matter what the nature of the tasks are they all compete for the same limited pool of resources.
With this theory in mind all we need to be concerned with is the resource demand, the combined cost of all the individual tasks at hand. If the combined demand for the tasks is greater than the available resources a task will suffer due to interference. Task-specific theory states that two tasks will interfere with each other only if the two tasks are similar hence pulling from the same source. If the tasks are different, using different cognitive abilities i.e. Spatial vs. verbal, then divided attention will be easy because the two processes take place in different regions of the brain hence pulling from two resource pools rather than just one which in turn explains divided attention.
Many studies prove this to be true and all conclude the degree of interference depends on the nature of the tasks being performed. Working memory has its limitations and divided attention can only be so divided. Cognitive processes take effort and there is some times a tie up on the neurological super highway because of the time required to put forth that effort. The way our brain deals with these little tie-ups is a response-selector. A response-selector can only deal with on thing at a time, just like a waiter can only take one person’s order at a time.
If two consecutive tasks require the response-selector one ends up waiting while the selector deals with the other task. Most tasks do not require a constant aid of the response-selector so you may select and then initiate an action and the time you spend carrying out that action frees up the response-selector to take on another task, come up with a solution and then initiate the response for that task. This process is a cycle where response-selector bounces from task to task this is commonly referred to as time-sharing and is evidence that divided attention is also task-general. In everyday life I myself find that I rely on divided attention a lot. Most of my divided attention can be explained by automaticity.
For example I work at Blockbuster Video as my off campus job and I find the job very easy due to practice. Most of my shift is spent on auto pilot which frees up my resources to be able to make conversation with my fellow employees but most often with customers giving them my reviews on movies I have seen. Performing tasks on the computer that at one time took total concentration with practice have become actions I could do with my eyes closed. I have noticed although a problem with divided attention I tried out for a play for the first time this semester and I did not realize how difficult it was to do a cold read, reading lines that are unfamiliar and given no instruction on proper dictation. I found my self competing for resources when I went up to read my lines and found my self not only trying to read what was on the page, but also trying to adjust my tone of voice to parallel what was being said and adjust my body movements in attempt to look natural.
I had a vague idea of how divided attention worked but no where close to the understanding I have now. I feel that I understand divided attention very well because I was able to torture my roommate with a detailed explanation of it three in the morning enough so he became interested in what other knowledge I have obtained from this class. The Role of Meaning and Memory Connections Obtaining new knowledge requires learning and input of new material into long term memory. For the new information to become new knowledge one must understand the information and interrelate it with past knowledge or weave it in with other chunks of information to be entered into the brains storage unit refereed to as long term memory. An intricate indexing procedure is needed in order to retrieve this information for latter use.
According to the parallel distributed theory of learning an idea is stored not as one unit but rather many sub-units all connected due to there related meaning. Connections allow one memory to trigger another and through the spreading activation of neurons complex webs of understanding are accomplished. This is very convenient because if any part of the material is recalled then that recall of information connected to it is more easily reca …