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Devepopment Of Modern Science In Europe

.. nt funds scientists, like the ones at Gresham College, could make great strives in improving the lives of the population and making the nation powerful and rich. Gresham College in London, England was an institution funded by Sir Thomas Gresham, which had close ties with the Royal Navy. Many instruments were developed there which aided in accurate time keeping and observation of the stars, which was so critical in ocean navigation. Instruments such as a newer telescope, the thermometer, the microscope, the pendulum clock, the barometer and the air pump. These instruments not only helped England become a great sea power, by enabling ships to travel farther and return safely, but gave the scientists more accurate ways to gather information. The monarchy saw the value of instruments produced by the scientists and established the Royal Society of London in 1662. England was not the only country whose monarchy recognized the usefulness of science.

Other royal houses established and often funded scientific societies of their own. By 1700 there were four great academies in Europe, The Royal Society of London, the Academy of experimentation in Florence, The French Royal Academy and the Berlin Academy of Sciences. The academies were places where leading scientists met and were encouraged to experiment and do research. The findings of the Scientists were published in books and journals. These publications at first were read only by other scientists but eventually would be found in libraries and homes of the noblemen. Scientific Revolution scientists such as Galileo, Copernicus, Descartes and Bacon wrestled with questions about God, human aptitude, and the possibilities of understanding the world.

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The Church was an opponent of the Scientific Revolution, not so much because of opposition to new ideas but instead because the new information contradicted the model of the world the church had created. The Church felt that if people lost faith in the Church’s view of the universe then they might lose faith in the Church itself and not support it. Without support of the people ,and the money it brings, the Church could lose the power that it held in Europe. Eventually, the implications of the new scientific findings began to affect the way people thought and behaved throughout Europe. The impact of the Scientific Revolution on how people thought about the world around them was great.

It’s most direct influence was on European intellectuals who created a movement called the Enlightenment. Enlightenment intellectuals greatly admired the accomplishments of the Scientific Revolution. As they had questioned the authority of traditional knowledge about the universe they also began to question traditional views of the state and social order. Their favorite term ,reason, literally meant the use of the scientific method to understand everything. Physical science then was not the only place where the method of observation and reasible deduction could be used. At the center of the Enlightenment movement was a group of French writers and intellectuals, in Paris, called The Philosophes.

Their goals were to use the Scientific method, or deductive reasoning, to solve mankind’s social problems. They believed that with reason the human condition could be changed for the better. They called for abolishing slavery, equality for all classes of people. represenitive government of the people, quality education for all the youth, and the birthright of each person to enjoy a happy life. Life here on earth should get better through progress and common sense thinking. This was change in attitude implied that man could have a good life here on earth and not have to wait until they entered heaven.

Again this contradicted the model of man’s role in the world that the church had created. One such example of the ideals of The Enlightenment was Sketch Of The progress Of The Human Mind, written by Marie-Jean Caritit, The Marquis de Condorcet. Written in 1793-94 he traced the nine stages, or epochs, of man’s progress as it had already happened. The tenth stage, he predicted, would be a society, where progress would provide mankind with a perfect life. He writes, that nations should be equal and share in the enlightenment that is enjoyed by the powerful civilized nations.

“Should not all the nations of the world approach one day the state of civilization reached by the most enlightened peoples such as the French and the Anglo-American? Will not the slavery of nations subject to the Kings, the barbarity of African tribes, and ignorance of savages gradually disappear.” He further goes on to write that slavery will be abolished and all men will be free.” Thus the day will come when the sun will shine only on free man born knowing no other master but there reason; or tyrants in their slaves priests and they’re ignorant, hypocritical writings will exist only in the history books and theaters.” Scientific progress will produce wonderful machines to help mankind produce more goods and grow more food. ..that new tools, machines, and lose will add everyday at the capabilities and skills of humans they will improve a perfect precision of their products of decreasing the amount of time and labor needed to produce them.. a smaller piece of land will be able to produce commodities of greater usefulness and value than before.. we will be with the Jews for each type of soil of production of goods that will satisfy the greatest number of what it with the least amount of labor and expenditure. He noted that mankind will be able to do away with war, The most enlightened people, having seized for themselves the right to control their life and treasurer, was slowly come to perceive war as the deadliest plague and the most monstrous of crimes.. they will understand that they cannot become conquers without losing the liberty that perpetual ounces of the only way to preserve independence and that they should seek their security not power.

And finally he wrote that progress will eliminate poverty and sickness, No one can doubt the progress and preventive medicine, the use of healthier food and housing, a way of living that increases strength through exercise without destroying it through excess, and finally the destruction of the two most persistent causes it of deterioration, property and access of wealth, will lengthen for human beings the average life span and I share more good health and a stronger constitution. Clearly improvements in medical practices resulting from the progress of reason and the order of call society will cause transmittable and contagious diseases to disappear as well list diseases caused by climate, nourishment and certain vocations. The men that we have discussed felt that it was important to open our eyes and discover the world around us and try and answer the many questions that human beings ask about our universe, through observation, experimentation and deductive reasoning. That all mankind had the ability to reason and make a better life for themselves here on earth through progress, and scientific inventions. The Scientific revolution and the Age of Enlightenment was just the beginning of a journey that mankind would take toward a world of better medicine, more and healthier food, shorter work hours and longer lives.

And maybe, if we use a little more reason and common sense we can achieve the goal of The Marquis de Condorcet and live in that peaceful and perfect world. History Essays.

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