.. g a mother. The parents who show this usually have children who speak less, have poorer cognitive and linguistic outcomes, are impulsive, aggressive, have social withdrawal, insecure attachments, and poor peer relationships. Maltreatment of children is another big risk-factor with significant bearing on the social class. Maltreatment is associated with aggression, and four times as many(about 20%) of maltreated children go on to become delinquent. The causes can be associated with biological psychological, and social bearings.
There is no doubt that early maltreatment of children can affect their neurodevelopment as well as their behavior. If the parents have access to community resources, and the support those resources provide are increased, then the possibility of maltreatment is diminished. Disorganized attachment may be linked to maltreatment. Mothers with toddlers who reported an abundance of partner violence were more likely to show disorganized attachment relationships, even if there was no evidence of the children themselves having been maltreated. Maltreated youngsters show many other social and emotional problems including indiscriminate sociability, poor affect regulation, heightened levels of aggression, social withdrawal, inconsistent and unpredictable signals. Perhaps most critically, there appear to be major dysfunctions of self development.
It is suggested that if a child is maltreated early, then that may undermine the relationship between the infant and the care-giver. This limits the way they interact with their care-givers and other children. It focuses them to use action instead of words to influence the behavior of others, and the way themselves act. One of the most influential impacts on child development is child-rearing, or parenting. When we look at parenting this way social inequalities are most relevant.
The mothers who are from low SES groups are apt to provide less learning and academic stimulation, they offer less variety in social and cultural experiences, less warmth and affection, and more punitive care- giving such as yelling, scolding, hitting and spanking. These behaviors have shown to be associated with poor results including a lower IQ, and emotional and behavioral problems. A recent report from the multi-site Infant Health and Development Program showed that harsh parental discipline in the context of low maternal warmth, was associated with IQ scores for girls at three years of age 12 points lower than the IQ scores of girls who received low punishment and high warmth. Young mothers who have great stress in their mother-child relationship have found it more difficult to make use of job opportunity and basic skills programs. In regards of their strength in the relationship between quality of parenting, and socioeconomic status is moderate. When parenting is based on the assertion of power instead of supportive guidance, it breeds the development of behavioral disorders.
In a study conducted by NICHD Early Child Care Research Network, the ratings of mothers sensitivity – positive regard, non-intrusiveness, sensitivity to non-distress expression, based on videotaped observations of mother-child interaction at 6-15months showed non-complaint behavior in the laboratory, as well as in the home at two and three years. When parents make do demands such as come and eat, sit down, and get dressed to two and three year olds, instead of dont demands dont get lost, dont stay up too late, as well as using positive affects, the childrens level of compliance is enhanced. Another psychiatric problem that can be connected with social inequalities in early childhood development is substance abuse. Evidence shows that there is no simple relationship between prenatal drug exposure and specific developmental outcomes. But the combination of biological and psycho-social risk factors that are related with drug abuse. It has been shown that there are serious effects on development.
A drug using life style could be tied to inadequate nutrition and poor prenatal care, which compromises fetal growth. Drug exposure is likely to affect CNS development as a function of timing, dose, and duration. These factors are impossible to control, and their impact can be moderated by other factors that are not related to the nature of the exposure. By assessing this information, I think that maybe we should look at the existing health visitation program offered by the state. If we make some changes I feel that the health visitation may be more effective.
We could have them working more with mothers before the birth of their child, giving them information on what to expect. Also have them work in a structured program of proven proficiency, one that has shown good results. Priority should also be given to mothers who, in the past have had a history of childhood maltreatment, give special training in child management techniques, all of these should lead up to good childhood care. There could also be experimental trials conducted for early parent-training, who are at high risk. These could include focusing on child behavior management, having the parent take classes on how to manage different behaviors.
Enlist the aide of the community in parent- training, this could be offered in groups instead of individuals, this does away with the singling out of people who are more at risk than others. There should also be a much wider voluntary program for mothers at risk, and this could be started in the childs first six months. A specialized trainer could conduct this program, maybe a mother who has already gone through the program. In the pre-school curriculum problems of behavior may be addressed. Schools could have specially trained pre-school teachers aimed at reducing the risk of behavior disorders, and conduct problems.
For children and parents who are going through the loss of a parent, by divorce or death, a program could be set up. This program would help the parents to manage the conflict of divorce, in order to reduce the child from feeling like they are the problem. It would also help the child to stay in touch with both parents after the divorce. This program could be integrated into the school system, with school based counseling services for these children. Bibliography ?Bibliography Easterbrooks, M.
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