.. = a declamatory setting of a text, with rhythms and inflections related to those of speech. Aria = a songlike setting, musically expressive, accompanied by the orchestra. Da capo = from the beginning a three-part design. The composer writes the first section and a contrasting middle section of a da capo aria, and the performer repeats the first section with embellishments.
Chorus = a large ensemble, with several voices on each part. Libretto = the words of an opera or other dramatic vocal work. Overture = in music theater, an introductory instrumental piece. George gershwin = ansombels. Ch.
18. Drone = a single tone, sounded continuously or repeated. Jimmie Rodgers(1897-1933) = from Mississippi, he was an early country singer. Known as singing breakman. The Carter Family = whereas he typified the hard-living solo wanderer, they represented the close, conservative family. The Carters performed as a group, their harmony close and their voices high-pitched and tense.
1920s- the Carters accompanied themselves with guitar, and with autoharp, a simple folk instrument. Performed country music professionally. Cajun Music = light hearted, with dance-related rhythms and catchy melodies, is similar in many ways to the folk musics of rural America, having absorbed some influence from the hillbillies and later country musicians- who in turn, from Lousiana and later in Texas. Ensembles accompanying Cajun dancing or singing often include a small accordion known as a concertina. Concertina = a kind of accordion or portable reed instrument.
Melody and chords are achieved by depressing buttons or keys, and the wind is supplied by a folding bellows. Zydeco = a rock-flavored Cajun style of country music. (snap beans, from the title of a song). Rockabilly = combining country themes with the rhythms and instrumentation of rock and roll, as the audience for traditional country music fell away.(Nashville Tennessee. Smooth grass = instrumental music.
Bill Monroe = (1911-1996) Blue Grass Boys , playing in the late 40s. Bluegrass instruments = ensemble include a fiddle, guitar, string bass, and five-string banjo. Often there is also a mandolin, popular Italian instrument, on which Bill Monroe was a virtuoso. Woodrow Wilson Woody Guthrie(1914-1967) folk representative, developed a simple hillbilly singer into a sophisticated composer and performer of protest songs. Ch.
19. Latin American Music = 1st to affect American pop was the Argentinian tango, a graceful and sensuous dance sedate in tempo. Introduced to Broadway in 1911, and made widely popular as danced by Irene and Vernon Castle in a 1913 musical. 1st latin dances to become popular north of the border was the Bomba = a distinctive African-derived Puerto Rican couple dance allowing the man great flexibility and freedom to display his dancing skills while his partner performs relatively fixed steps. Guiro = a notched gourd, open at one end, scraped with a stick or with metal wires, and or cowbell. Claves = cylindrical sticks.(tempo varies, but never very rapid.) Bongos = are pairs of drums of different size, held between the knees and usually played with the fingers and hand, sometimes with a stick.
Mariachis = Mexican strolling groups of musicians, including strings and often led by one or more trumpets(jouyes, happy). The Beguine = is a native dance of the West Indies. Salsa = Popular Cuban dance band music with rhythms derived from African American dances. Reggae = a blend of rock and African-Jamaican styles. Samba = Most famous Brazilian song/dance; duple meter.
Ch. 20. The phenomem race = white/black rhythm in blues. Mills brothers = (music) was close in style to tin pan alley. Rock and roll = a popular music of the mid-fifties to mid-sixties that combined characteristics of rhythm and blues and country-western music.
Alan Freed = disc jockey in Cleveland Ohio, took rhythm and blues and instead of mainstream popular music. Beatles = Liverpool gang, John Lennon formed the group, which included Paul McCartney and George Harrison. John Lennon was an outstanding poet. The group performed together for only about 10 years. The Who group = evolved in the sixties, their rock opera Tommy, written in 1969, was made into a successful film in 1975.
Elton John = his birth name (Reginald Kenneth Dwight). Vibrato = a slight variation in pitch that adds warmth and intensity to vocal or instrumental sounds. Early beatles songs were not violent and rebellious. Ch. 22.
Charles Ives = (1874-1954) American Rebel, lived in connecit, his father was a band master, when a kid, he watched a lot of parades. Started to write music as a young man in the 1800s became an insurance agent became a millionaire. Henry Cowell(1897-1965), 1st composer to use (tone cluster). The Banshee = (by Henry Cowell) according to Irish(and scotish) folklore, a banshee is a fairywoman who foretells death by materializing nearby the one doomed to die and wailing her long, howling cry. Aleatronic music = (chance) is music in which the composer has left significant decisions to the performer or to chance.(by electronic means).
John Cage =(1912-1992) took an unorthodox approach to writing music, known for writing elevator music. The Perilous Night (also by john cage) cage considered all sounds worthy of attention. silence is an absurd concept that simply does not exist. Edgard Var`ese(1885-1965) = pioneer of early electronic music, made music out of any sound, and was the 1st composer to consider music as organized sounds.(Julliard school in NY). Experimental music = music challenging traditional concepts of musical sound. Atonal music = no tonality(no time). Arnold Schoenberg = wrote serial music, and was a jew, (was Australian and came to California) thaught composition at USC. EXPRESSIONIST = 12 tone music school of composition.(more expressed). Elements = rhythm and timbre(tone color).
Musique convrete = music that has been created by manipulating taped sounds. Any sounds may be selected for this purpose.(natural music) Milton Babbitt = b(1916) great appreciation for the 12 tone technique, composed only electronic music, and worked only on tape. Gamelan = intro to percussion ensemble. Ch. 23. 1920s-30s was the era first composers made a living as composers.
Nadia Boulanger(1887-1979) and Aaron Copland(1900-1990) teacher, used jazz and folk music. Fanfare = brief dramatic piece for brass instruments, with the character of an announcement or celebration.(by Aaron Copland). Appalachian Spring = (aaron copland), folklike hym. Samuel Barber = (1910-1981) greatest composer of the century, exp.(knoxville, Adagio for strings, platoon. William Grant Still(1895-1978) African American Composer, used in the Banjo, and was from mixed ratio background(american indians, and african american).