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Alexander The Great

Alexander The Great Alexander the Great and His Achievements Alexander the Great was the king of Macedon. Alexander of Macedon, or ancient Mecadonia, deserves to be called the Great. Alexander the Great was considered one of the greatest military geniuses of all times. He was an excellent king, general, and conqueror. During his thirteen-year rule he conquered almost all the then known world and gave a new direction to history. He had established an empire after he died.

His new empire helped many people live their lives. He improved the way of life in his empire in many ways. Conquering other lands spread the Greek traditions and language. Alexander the Great was born in Pella, the ancient capital of Macedon (Martin 192). He was the son of Philip II and Olympias.

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Philip II was the king of Macedonia and Olympias was the princess of Epirus (Stewart 18). Alexander had many interests in military strategies (Stewart 20). Once when Alexander was about seven years old, a group of Persian diplomats came to Macedon to see Philip. Philip was with his army fighting neighboring tribes so the diplomats stayed and talked with Alexander. They didn’t except Alexander to ask questions about the size of the Persian army and the length of the journey to Susa (an important city in Persia). This shows one of Alexander’s early interests (Stewart 21). Philip decided to buy Alexander a racehorse when Alexander was ten or eleven years old.

The horse was named Bucephalas. Bucephalas’ behavior did not please Philip. Philip ordered the horse’s owner to take the horse away but Alexander declared that he could tame the horse (Stewart 21). Everyone applauded when they saw Alexander ride the horse. The rest of the company broke into applause, writes Plutarch, while his father, we are told, wept for joy, and when Alexander had dismounted he kissed him and said, ‘My boy, you must find a kingdom big enough for your ambitions. Macedon is too small for you’ (Stewart 22).

Alexander needed more than horsemanship and self-confidence to be a good king. He needed discipline. Philip worried that Olympias spoiled the boy too much. For Alexander to learn those things, Philip hires a stern and a tough tutor to teach Alexander. His name is Leonidas.

He monitored Alexander’s meals and exercises. Leonidas didn’t trust Olympias. He suspected she tried to smuggle extra food in Alexander’s marching gear. The man [Leonidas] himself used to come and look through my bedding boxes and clothes chests, Alexander wrote, to see my mother did not hide any luxuries (Stewart 22). Philip knew that Alexander needed more training. Philip sent for a teacher who was probably the wisest man in all of Greece. His name was Aristotle.

Aristotle was born in a small township of Stagira in northern Greece (Barnes 3). Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and scientist. He is considered the most famous ancient thinkers (Barnes 3). When Aristotle was seventeen years old he moved to Athens, where he became a member of Plato’s school. He stayed at Plato’s academy for twenty years. Aristotle left the Academy when Plato died. Aristotle founded his own informal philosophical school in Athens.

Aristotle lectured on nearly every branch of learning: biology, medicine, anatomy, psychology, meteorology, physics, chemistry, mathematics, music, metaphysics, rhetoric, political science, ethics, and literary criticism. Aristotle defined and classified various branches of knowledge. He sorted them into physics, psychology, rhetoric, poetry, and logic. He laid the foundation of the most of the sciences of today. He collected the first great library and established a museum (Martin 182).

In 342 B.C. Philip invited Aristotle to teach his thirteen-year-old son Alexander. Aristotle’s main love was philosophy. Alexander and Aristotle’s discussion about philosophy laid the foundation for Alexander’s ideas of what it meant to be a soldier and a king. Alexander learned from Aristotle the principles of zoology and botany. Alexander enjoyed literature most out of all the lessons Aristotle taught.

Aristotle introduced the boy to the best poets and writers (Stewart 22-23). Alexander loved the work of Homer. The Illiad was Alexander’s favorite. The tales of adventure, love, bravery, and loyalty excited Alexander. Aristotle gave Alexander a copy of the poem.

Alexander carried the book everywhere and put it under his pillow while he slept (Hammond 18). Alexander sometimes declared that he loved Aristotle as much as his father. The one had given me life, said Alexander, but the Philosopher [Aristotle] had shown me how to live well (Stewart 22). After three years of teaching Philip needed Alexander. Philip knew that if his son were to follow him as a general and ruler, he would have to train for battle.

When Alexander was seventeen years old he experienced his first battle. Philip and Alexander fought together against some people in Athens and Thebes. Thousands of Athenians and Thebans were slaughtered. Philip’s confidence in his son paid off, for Alexander not only survived the battle, but also impressed soldiers who were more experienced. Plutarch writes that because of these achievements .

. . [he] became extravagantly fond of his son, so much so that he took pleasure in hearing the Macedonians speak of Alexander as their king and Philip as their general (Stewart 29). When Philip died, Alexander declared himself as King of Macedon. Alexander became king when he was twenty years old.

Alexander wanted to fulfill his father wishes that were conquering Persia (Martin 192). Alexander had controlled all of Greece and was prepared to conquer Persia. The Persian king Darius III and Alexander met at Issus. When Darius saw Alexander’s huge army, Darius and his army ran. With the victory at Issus Alexander controlled Asia Minor (Stewart 63-64). In 332 B.C.

Alexander marched into Egypt. The Egyptians did not like the Persian rule, so they welcomed Alexander and his army. They treated Alexander as their pharaoh (Stewart 75). He found Alexandria, a city, at the mouth of the Nile. Alexandria became the literary, scientific, and commercial center of the Greek world (Hammond 278). After leaving Egypt, Alexander went to face Darius and his army.

Their army clashed at Gaugamela. Again, Darius fled. With the victory in Gaugamela, the Persian rule was over. Alexander was proclaimed the king of Persia (Martin 193). Alexander’s army then advanced to India. Alexander led his army toward Porus’ kingdom.

When he met Porus’ army, Alexander was surprised at the size of his army (Stewart 99). When Alexander attacked the Indian, he told the cavalries to stay behind the infantries. Porus’ elephants were attacking the infantries while archers attack the elephants. When the elephants were forced back Alexander’s army attacked (Stewart 101). In 323 B.C. Alexander was ill and died.

At the age of 33 the king of Macedon, Greece, Persia, Africa and India was dead (Stewart 113). Alexander founded many cities; most of them were named Alexandria. These cities were located in many places, so the Greek culture and language was widely known (Hammond 383). After Alexander’s death, the period was called the Hellenistic Age (Martin 198). The Hellenistic is a mixed idea of cosmopolitan form of social and cultural life combining Hellenic (that is, Greek) traditions with original tradition emerged in the eastern Mediterranean region in the result of Alexander’s conquests.

With the lands that Alexander conquered the Greek culture was widely spread. Three of Alexander’s most powerful commanders took of his empire. Antigonus took over in Macedonia and Greece, Seleucus took over Persia, and Ptolemy took over Egypt. The richest, most powerful, and longest lasting of these kingdoms was Ptolemy’s (Stewart 113). Ptolemy established the world’s first scholarly research institute.

Its massive library had the goal of collecting all the books (that is, manuscripts) in the world (Martin 210). Alexandria produced many achievements. Alexandria had museums and libraries. They built many royal palaces. An enormous stone lighthouse called the Pharos was a tomb that contained Alexander ‘s coffin. Hellenistic sculpture was very famous.

People purchased many statues. The largest Hellenistic statue is the Colossus of Rhodes (Martin 211). Although Alexander created a new empire, he wasn’t around to see it flourish. Alexander won many respects of many people and other kings. He was a great ruler and general. He had conquered most of the land explored in a short number of years.

The Hellenistic Age was an important age after Alexander’s reign. Alexander’s empire improved ways of life in Greece in many ways. Alexander created one of the best empires ever built. Bibliography Self Made.

Alexander The Great

Alexander The Great Alexander the Great (356-323 BC), king of Macedonia, conqueror of the Persian Empire, and one of the greatest military geniuses of all times. Alexander, born in Pella, the ancient capital of Macedonia, was the son of Philip II, king of Macedonia, and of Olympias, a princess of Epirus. Aristotle was Alexander’s tutor; he gave Alexander a thorough training in rhetoric and literature and stimulated his interest in science, medicine, and philosophy. In the summer of 336 BC Philip was assassinated, and Alexander ascended to the Macedonian throne. He found himself surrounded by enemies at home and threatened by rebellion abroad.

Alexander disposed quickly of all conspirators and domestic enemies by ordering their execution. Then he descended on Thessaly, where partisans of independence had gained ascendancy, and restored Macedonian rule. Before the end of the summer of 336 BC he had reestablished his position in Greece and was elected by a congress of states at Corinth. In 335 BC as general of the Greeks in a campaign against the Persians, originally planned by his father, he carried out a successful campaign against the defecting Thracians, penetrating to the Danube River. On his return he crushed in a single week the threatening Illyrians and then hastened to Thebes, which had revolted. He took the city by storm and razed it, sparing only the temples of the gods and the house of the Greek lyric poet Pindar, and selling the surviving inhabitants, about 8000 in number, into slavery.

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Alexander’s promptness in crushing the revolt of Thebes brought the other Greek states into instant and abject submission. Alexander began his war against Persia in the spring of 334 BC by crossing the Hellespont (modern Dardanelles) with an army of 35,000 Macedonian and Greek troops; his chief officers, all Macedonians, included Antigonus, Ptolemy, and Seleucus. At the river Granicus, near the ancient city of Troy, he attacked an army of Persians and Greek hoplites (mercenaries) totaling 40,000 men. His forces defeated the enemy and, according to tradition, lost only 110 men; after this battle all the states of Asia Minor submitted to him. In passing through Phrygia he is said to have cut with his sword the Gordian knot. Continuing to advance southward, Alexander encountered the main Persian army, commanded by King Darius III, at Issus, in northeastern Syria. The size of Darius’s army is unknown; the ancient tradition that it contained 500,000 men is now considered a fantastic exaggeration.

The Battle of Issus, in 333, ended in a great victory for Alexander. Cut off from his base, Darius fled northward, abandoning his mother, wife, and children to Alexander, who treated them with the respect due to royalty. Tyre, a strongly fortified seaport, offered obstinate resistance, but Alexander took it by storm in 332 after a siege of seven months. Alexander captured Gaza next and then passed on into Egypt, where he was greeted as a deliverer. By these successes he secured control of the entire eastern Mediterranean coastline. Later in 332 he founded, at the mouth of the Nile River, the city of Alexandria, which later became the literary.

Alexander The Great

Alexander the Great is, arguably, the most famous secular figure in history. His magnetism in life was rivaled only by his magnetism in death, and the story of his career has evoked vastly different interpretations in his age and ours. Young romantic hero or megalomaniac villain? Alexander III of Macedon conquered all who stood before him, but usually in order to free the lower class. He did more to spread the Hellenistic culture than anyone before or after him. My credibility comes from much studying of his lifestyle, and analysis of many contradicting biographies. With this speech, I hope to display to you most of his feats and battles, as well as the vast quantity of folklore that surrounds his life.

Alexander, was born on or around July 20, 356 BCE, in Pella. The exact date may have been created after the fact to match the date of the burning of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. His parents were Philip II of Macedon and Olympias, who descended from Gods according to myth.

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At 13, Aristotle was hired to tutor Alexander. Under Aristotle, Alexander learned philosophy, ethics, politics, and healing. The two later became estranged, due to their difference of opinion on the status of foreginers; Aristotle saw them as barbarians, while Alexander sought to merge Macedonians and foreigners.
Tale of Bucephalus: At 14 Alexander surprised all including his father by mounting an untamable horse named Bucephalus. Alexander would later name a city after the site where his horse died in battle.

340 BC: Philip II traveled to Byzantium to battle rebels, leaving 16yr old Alexander in charge as Prince Regent. While away, the Maedi, a north Macedonia tribe, revolted. Alexander traveled there, put down the revolt, captured the city and renamed it Alexandropolis.

At the age of 19, Philip II was assassinated. Alexander was a boy king. Cities like Athens and Thebes had pledged allegiance to Philip II, but were not sure if they wanted to do the same for a 19 year old boy. On top of that, barbarians to the north threatened to invade.

Alexander drove the barbarians north of the Danube, then focused on Thebes. He marched to the city, and offered them one final chance to obey him. They refused, and he went on to march into the city and kill nearly everyone. Athens later decided to align with Alexander.

334 BC: Alexander travels to Asia Minor. He begins freeing Greek cities under Persian rule, which ignites his legend as the great liberator. He defeats King Darius army for the first time at the Battle of Granicus.

Alexander then traveled to Phrygia, where the Gordian Knot sat. According to legend, he who untied this great knot tied by a long dead king would go on to rule all of Asia Minor. Alexander simply slashed it in two with his sword.
November, 333 BC: Alexander met Darius in battle for the second time. Though greatly outnumbered, Alexander defeated the Persians, but not before Darius fled. Afterward, Alexander marched into Damascus and captured Darius war chest and family.

After subduing the entire Aegean coast, Alexander traveled south to Egypt, where the peasants welcomed him as their great liberator. Alexander conquered the Pharaoh and freed all slaves, as well as founding Alexandria. The Egyptians made Alexander their Pharaoh.
331 BC: Alexander leaves Egypt in search of Darius, and finds him in Gaugamela. The Macedonians slaughtered the Persians, but Alexander again did not succeed in capturing Darius. After this battle, Alexander was named King of Asia, and sent letters to all of his Greek cities, proclaiming he had freed Asia of tyranny.

Alexander then received surrenders from Bayblon and Susa, and proceeded to rest his tropps in Persepolis, the capital of Persia.

Alexander continued his pursuit of Darius for hundreds of miles from Persepolis. When he finally caught up to him, he found the Persian king dead in his coach, assassinated by his own men. Alexander had the assassins executed and gave Darius a royal funeral.
As the Macedons marched on, the tone of the journey changed. Alexander had adopted the Persian style of dress, rather than his traditional Macedonian clothing, and his troops were unhappy with him. They gradually became more reluctant to follow him, but his charismatic personality persuaded them not to abandon him. The change in Alexander’s attire was but one part of his grand effort to reconcile Greek and Persian culture. He established training programs to teach Persians about Greek and Macedonian culture, and he even married a Persian dancer named Roxane.
In 326 BC, Alexander traveled to India, where he faced Porus, one of Indias most powerful kings. He defeated Porus army, who fought with Elephants, something the Macedonians had never seen. Alexander captured Porus and, like all the other local rulers he had defeated, allowed him to continue to govern his territory. Alexander even subdued an independent province and granted it to Porus as a gift. This is the battle where Bucephalus died.

Alexander wanted to travel to the Ganges but his soldiers refused. Instead, they took the long way home, with random stops for Alexander to either conquer or debate Indian philosophers. At one of these stops, a fierce tribe, the Malli, wounded him in the ribcage severely.

In 324 B.C.E., Alexander furthered his mission to assimilate Macedonian and Persian cultures when he arranged thousands of marriages between the Greek soldiers and Persian women in Susa. Alexander himself took a second wife, Stateira, one of Darius’ daughters.
The next year, Alexander traveled with his men to Babylon despite numerous threatening omens. The omens were so frequent and ominous that Alexander feared that he had fallen out of favor with the gods. He died of a fever on June 10, 323 BC.

Though Alexander died suddenly, and at the age of 33, he left behind a tremendous legacy. Alexander spread the Hellenistic culture far and wide, providing the backbone for culture in the western hemisphere as we know it today. He paved the way for Christianity as well. From the fulfillment of the Gordian knot legend, to the dignified way he conquered countries, Alexander the Great ensured his place in history as one of, if not the greatest ruler of all time.

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