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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein Einsteins early life; Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany on Mar. 14, 1879. Einstein’s parents, who were non observant Jews, moved from Ulm to Munich when Einstein was an infant. The family business was the manufacture of electrical parts. When the business failed, in 1894, the family moved to Milan, Italy.

At this time Einstein decided officially to relinquish his German citizenship. Within a year, still without having completed secondary school, Einstein failed an examination that would have allowed him to take a course of study leading to a diploma as an electrical engineer at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. He spent the next year in nearby Aarau at the continual secondary school, where he enjoyed excellent teachers. Einstein returned in 1896 to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, where he graduated, in 1900 as a secondary school teacher of mathematics and physics. After two years he obtained a post at the Swiss patent office in Bern.

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The patent-office work required Einstein’s careful attention, but while employed there he completed an astonishing range of publications in theoretical physics. For the most part these texts were written in his spare time and without the benefit of close contact with either the scientific literature or theoretician colleagues. Einstein took one of his scientific papers to the University of Zurich to obtain a Ph.D. degree in 1905. In 1908 he sent a second paper to the University of Bern and became a lecturer there.

The next year Einstein received a regular appointment as associate professor of physics at the University of Zurich. By 1909, Einstein was recognized throughout German-speaking Europe as a leading scientific thinker. In quick succession he held professorships at the German University of Prague and at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. In 1914 he advanced to the best-paying post that a theoretical physicist could hold in central Europe, professor at the Kaiser-Wilhelm Gesellschaft in Berlin. By the age of 35 he was recognized as the best physicist in whole Europe.

Einstaens later life; When British eclipse expeditions in 1919 confirmed his predictions about the general theory of relativity, Einstein was bombarded by the popular press. Einstein’s personal ethics also fired public imagination. Einstein, who after returning to Germany in 1914 did not reapply for German citizenship, was one of only a handful of German professors who remained a pacifist and did not support Germany’s war aims. After the war, when the victorious allies sought to exclude German scientists from international meetings, Einstein–a Jew traveling with a Swiss passport–remained an acceptable German envoy. Einstein’s political views as a pacifist and a Zionist pitted him against conservatives in Germany, who branded him a traitor and a defeatist. The public success accorded his theories of relativity evoked savage attacks in the 1920s by the anti-Semitic physicists Johannes Stark and Philipp Lenard, men who after 1932 tried to create a so-called Aryan physics in Germany. Just how controversial the theories of relativity remained for less flexibly minded physicists is revealed in the circumstances surrounding Einstein’s reception of a Nobel Prize in 1921–awarded not for relativity but for his 1905 work on the photoelectric effect.

With the rise of fascism in Germany, Einstein moved, in 1933 to the United States and abandoned his pacifism. He reluctantly agreed that the new menace had to be put down through force of arms. In this context Einstein sent a letter, in 1939, to President Franklin D. Roosevelt that urged that the United States proceed to develop an atomic bomb before Germany did. The letter, composed by Einstein’s friend Leo Szilard, was one of many exchanged between the White House and Einstein, and it contributed to Roosevelt’s decision to fund what became the Manhattan Project.

As much he appeared to the public as a champion of unpopular causes, Einstein’s central concerns always revolved around physics. At the age of 59, when other theoretical physicists would long since have abandoned original scientific research, Einstein and his co-workers Leopold Infeld and Banesh Hoffmann achieved a major new result in the general theory of relativity. Until the end of his life Einstein sought a unified field theory, whereby the phenomena of gravitation and electromagnetism could be derived from one set of equations. After 1920, however, while retaining relativity as a fundamental concept, theoretical physicists focused more attention on the theory of quantum mechanics, as elaborated by Max Planck, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, and others, and Einstein’s later thoughts went somewhat neglected for decades. This picture has changed in more recent years.

Physicists are now striving to combine Einstein’s relativity theory with quantum theory in a “theory of everything,” by means of such highly advanced mathematical models as superstring theories. I picked this man to write about because at first he started out normal and no one tought that he will become one of the greathest minds in the world of all time. As a little kid he couldnt pass secondary school and later in his life he with some help from two co-workers in the Manhattan project he created the the Atomic bomb. At the age of 26 he forms the equation of energy: E=MC^2. On the next two pages is a timetable and everything that Einstein did in his life.

1879: Albert Einstein is born to Hermann Einstein (a featherbedsalesman) and his wife Pauline in Ulm, Germany. 1884: Around this time, Albert receives his first compass, beginning his quest to investigate the natural world. 1889: At age 10, Albert sets into a program of self education andreads as much about science as he can. 1894: The Einsteins move from Munich to Pavia, Italy andAlbert, 15, stays on in Munichto finish the school year. Albert lasts only a term on his own and follows his family to Pavia.

1895: Albert attempts to skip high school by taking an entrance exam to the Swiss Polytechnic, a top technical university, but he fails the arts portion. His family sends him to the Swiss town of Aarau to finish high school. 1896: Albert graduates from high school at the age of 17 and enrolls at the ETH (the Federal Polytechnic) in Zurich. 1898: Albert falls in love with Mileva Maric, a Hungarian classmate at the ETH. 1900: Albert graduates from the ETH.

1901: Albert becomes a Swiss citizen. Unemployed, he searches for work. He and Mileva meet in northern Italy for a tryst. Mileva becomes pregnant. In the fall, Albert finds work in Schaffhausen, Switzerland as a tutor.

Mileva, visibly pregnant, moves to Stein Am Rhein, three miles upriver. Mileva then moves to Hungary to give birth to their baby at her parent’s home. Albert moves to Bern. 1902: In January, Mileva gives birth to their daughter, Lieserl, whom they eventually put up for adoption. She reportedly becomes ill and then all record of her disappears. Albert takes a job at the Swiss Patent Office.

Hermann Einstein becomes ill and dies. 1903: Albert and Mileva marry in January 1904: Mileva gives birth to their first son, Hans Albert. 1905: “Annus Mirabilis” — Einstein’s “Miracle Year”: his Special theory of Relativity is born. June 30th, Einstein, submits his paper, “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies” to the leading German physics journal. At age 26, he applies his theory to mass and energy and formulates the equation e=mc2.

1906: Still living in Bern, Einstein continues as an Examiner at the Swiss Patent Office. 1907: Einstein begins applying the laws of gravity to his Special Theory of Relativity. 1910: Son Eduard is born. 1911: The Einsteins move to Prague where Albert is given a full professorship at the German University there. Albert is the youngest to attend the invitation-only Solvay Conference in Brussels, the first world physics conference. 1912: The Einsteins move to Zurich where Albert is given a position as a professor of Theoretical Physics at the ETH.

1913: Einstein works on his new Theory of Gravity. 1914: Einstein becomes director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute in Berlin and professor of theoretical physics at the University of Berlin. The family moves there in April, but Mileva and the sons return to Zurich after 3 months. The divorce prodeedings begin.In August, World War I begins. 1915: Einstein completes the General Theory of Relativity.

1917: Einstein collapses and, near death, falls seriously ill. He is nursed back to health by his cousin, Elsa. He publishes his first paper on cosmology. 1919: Albert marries Elsa. May 29, a solar eclipse proves Einsteins General Theory of Relativity works.

1922: Is awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for 1921. 1927: Attends fifth Solvay Conference and begins developing the foundation of quantum mechanics with Bohr. 1928: Einstein begins pursing his idea of a unified field theory. 1932: Einstein is 53 and at the height of his fame. Identified as a Jew, he begins to feel the heat of Nazi Germany. 1933: Albert and Elsa set sail for the United States.

They settle in Princeton, New Jersey where he assumes a post at the Institute for Advanced Study. 1936: Elsa dies after a brief illness. 1939: World War II begins. Einstein writes a famous letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt warning of the possibility of Germanys building an atomic bomb and urging nuclear research. 1940: Einstein becomes an American citizen; retains Swiss citizenship.

1949: Mileva dies. 1955: Einstein dies of heart failure on April 16.

Albert Einstein

Of all the scientists to emerge from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries there is one whose name is known by almost all living people. While most of these do not understand this man’s work, everyone knows that its impact on the world of science is astonishing. Yes, many have heard of Albert Einstein’s General Theory of relativity, but few know about the intriguing life that led this scientist to discover what some have called, “The greatest single achievement of human thought.”Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany on March 14, 1874. Before his first birthday, his family had moved to Munich where young Albert’s father, Hermann Einstein, and uncle set up a small electro-chemical business. He was fortunate to have an excellent family with which he held a strong relationship. Albert’s mother, Pauline Einstein, had an intense passion for music and literature, and it was she that first introduced her son to the violin in which he found much joy and relaxation. Also, he was very close with his younger sister, Maja, and hey could often be found in the lakes that were scattered about the countryside near Munich.As a child, Einstein’s sense of curiosity had already begun to stir. A favorite toy of his was his father’s compass, and he often marvelled at his uncle’s explanations of algebra. Although young Albert was intrigued by certain mysteries of science, he was considered a slow learner. His failure to become fluent in German until the age of nine even led some teachersto believe he was disabled.Einstein’s post-basic education began at the Luitpold Gymnasium when he was ten. It was here that he first encountered the German spirit through the school’s strict disciplinary policy. His disapproval of this method of teaching led to his reputation as a rebel. It was probably these differences that caused Einstein to search for knowledge at home. He began not with science, but with religion. He avidly studied the Bible seeking truth, but this religious fervor soon died down when he discovered the intrigue of science and math. To him, these seemed much more realistic than ancient stories. With this new knowledge he disliked class even more, and was eventually expelled from Luitpold Gymnasium being considered a disruptive influence.Feeling that he could no longer deal with the German mentality, Einstein moved to Switzerland where he continued his education. At sixteen he attempted to enroll at the Federal Institute of Technology but failed the entrance exam. This forced him to study locally for one year until he finally passed the school’s evaluation. The Institute allowed Einstein to meet many other students that shared his curiosity, and It was here that his studies turned mainly to Physics. He quickly learned that while physicists had generally agreed on major principals in the past, there were modern scientists who were attempting to disprove outdated theories. Since most of Einstein’s teachers ignored these new ideas, he was again forced to explore on his own. In 1900 he graduated from the Institute and then achieved citizenship to Switzerland.Einstein became a clerk at the Swiss Patent Office in 1902. This job had little to do with physics, but he was able to satiate his curiosity by figuring out how new inventions worked. The most important part of Einstein’s occupation was that it allowed him enough time to pursue his own line of research. As his ideas began to develop, he published them in specialist journals. Though he was still unknown to the scientific world, he began to attract a large circle of friends and admirers. A group of students that he tutored quickly transformed into a social club that shared a love of nature, music, and of course, science. In 1903 he married Mileva Meric, a mathematician friend.In 1905, Einstein published five separate papers in a journal, the Annals of Physics. The first was immediately acknowledged, and the University of Zurich awarded Einstein an additional degree. The other papers helped to develop modern physics and earned him the reputation of an artist. Many scientists have said that Einstein’s work contained an imaginative spirit that was seen in most poetry. His work at this time dealt with molecules, and how their motion affected temperature, but he is most well known for his Special Theory of Relativity which tackled motion and the speed of light. Perhaps the most important part of his discoveries was the equation: E=mc2.After publishing these theories Einstein was promoted at his office. He remained at the Patents Office for another two years, but his name was becoming too big among the scientific community. In 1908, Einstein began teaching party time at the University of Berne, and the following year, at the age of thirty, he became employed full time by Zurich University. Einstein was now able to move to Prague with his wife and two sons, Hans Albert and Eduard. Finally, after being promoted to a professor, Einstein and his family were able to enjoy a good standard of living, but the job’s main advantage was that it allowed Einstein to access an enormous library. It was here that he extended his theory and discussed it with the leading scientists of Europe. In 1912 he chose to accept a job placing him in high authority at the Federal Institute of Technology, where he had originally studied. It was not until 1914 that Einstein was tempted to return to Germany to become research director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics.World War I had a strong effect on Einstein. While the rest of Germany supported the army, he felt the war was unnecessary, and disgusting. The new weapons of war which attempted to mass slaughter people caused him to devote much of his life toward creating peace. Toward the end of the war Einstein joined a political party that worked to end the war, and return peace to Europe. In 1916 this party was outlawed by the government, and Einstein was seen as a traitor.In that same year, Einstein published his General Theory of relativity, This result of ten years work revolutionized physics. It basically stated that the universe had to be thought of as curved, and told how light was affected by this. The next year, Einstein published another paper that added that the universe had no boundary, but actually twisted back on its self. After the war, many aspects of Einstein’s life changed. He divorced his wife, who had been living in Zurich with the children throughout the war, and married his cousin Elsa Lowenthal. This led to a renewed interest in his Jewish roots, and he became an active supporter of Zionism. Since anti-Semitism was growing in Germany, he quickly became the target of prejudice. There were many rumors about groups who were trying to kill Einstein, and he began to travel extensively. The biggest change, though, was in 1919 when scientist who studied an eclipse confirmed that his theories were correct.In 1921, he traveled through Britain and the United States raising funds for Zionism and lecturing about his theories. He also visited the battle sites of the war, and urged that Europe renew scientific and cultural links. He promoted non-patriotic, non-competitive education, believing that it would prevent war from happening in the future. He also believed that socialism would help the world achieve peace.Einstein received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1922. He gave all the money to his ex-wife and children to help with their lives and education. After another lecture tour, he visited Palestine for the opening the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. He also talked about the possibilities that Palestine held for the Jewish people. Upon his return he began to enjoy a calmer life in which he returned to his original curiosity, religion.While Einstein was visiting America in 1933 the Nazi party came to power in Germany. Again he was subject to anti-Semitic attacks, but this time his house was broken into, and he was publicly considered an enemy of the nation. It was obvious that he could not return to Germany, and for the second time he renounced his German citizenship. During these early years in America he did some research at Princeton, but did not accomplish much of significance.In 1939 the second World War began to take form. There was heated argument during this time over whether the United States should explore the idea of an atomic bomb. Einstein wrote to President Roosevelt warning him of the disaster that could occur if the Nazi’s developed it first. Einstein did not participate in the development of the bomb, but the idea did stem from his equation E=mc2. Just as he knew that the bomb was under development, he also knew when it was going to be used. Just before the bomb was dropped on Japan. Einstein wrote a letter to the President begging him not to use this terrible weapon. The rest of Einstein’s life was dedicated to promoting peace. After the war ended, he declared, “The war is won, but the peace is not.” He wrote many articles and made many speeches calling for a world government. His fame, at this point, was legendary. People from all over would write to him for advice, and he would often answer them. He also continued his scientific research until the day he died. This was on April 18, 1955. There is no doubt that he was dissatisfied that he never was able to find the true meaning of existence that he strove for all his life.Bibliography- Clark, Ronald W., Einstein – The Life and Times, New York: World Publishing, 1971.- Dank, Milton, Albert Einstein, New York: An Impact Biography, 1920.- Dukas, Helen and Banesh Hoffman, eds., Albert Einstein: The Human Side, Princeton: University Press, 1979.- Einstein, Albert, Carl Seelig, ed., Ideas and Opinions, New York: Bonanza Books, 1954.- “Einstein, Albert.” Random House Encyclopedia, Random House Press, 1990 edition.- Hunter, Nigel, Einstein, New York: Bookwright Press, 1987.- Nourse, Dr. Alan E., Universe, Earth, and Atom: The Story of Physics, New York and Evanston: Harper ; Row, Publishers, 1969.

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