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Abortion

Abortion Home and Family Paper Prewrite family, bedroom. kitchen, bathroom, cousins, aunts and uncles, parents, guardians, marriage, what is a marriage, single parent households, low income housing, single mothers, single fathers, unwanted pregnancies, abortion is right or wrong, brothers, sisters, grandparents, working parents, generation gaps between children and parents, parents talking to their children about social i.e. sex, abortion, drug use, and other various issues, parents teaching their children rather than schools, family room, sitting down for dinner at the kitchen table, parents as role models, siblings taking care of younger siblings to help with responsibility at home, divorce, gay marriages, adoption, welfare system, child care, dead beat parents, guns at home, inner city homes as related to suburban homes, expansion of cities, overpopulation, t.v. families, family values, fidelity in marriages, chores to be done, finical problems at home, definition of a family, the ideal family, dysfunctional families, punishing parents for crimes their children did, ?A family that prays together stays together? are there more responsibilities for children nowadays, classes on parenting, Topic: To explain why abortion should be illegal in all cases. Thesis statement: With every abortion that occurs another inaudible scream from the unborn child occurs and the rights of that child are taken away .

Outline Topic: To argue why abortion should be illegal in all cases. Thesis Statement: With every abortion that occurs another inaudible scream from the unborn child occurs and the rights of that child are taken away . Main point #1: The first reason why abortion should be illegal is that abortion is murder. Subpoints: US Supreme ruling on Roe vs. Wade never stated when life begins and also only protects the life of the mother not the child. The hypocratic oath that doctors take says that the doctor must try to save the patient for dying; however abortion doctors are doing the opposite. Main point# 2: Cases involving rape and incest. subpoints: To explain that in most cases incest is rape.

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Why should the unborn baby be condemned? Solutions in case of rape. Main point#3: Should be abortion be illegal in cases that the mothers life is endanger. Subpoints: If the problem occurs as result of a cancerous uterus then an abortion as a result of a hysterectomy is acceptable. If the abortion is performed to save a mothers life then it is wrong, i.e. complications at birth.

Solution is that the doctor should try do all they can for both the mother and child. Conclusion: Tying together all the topics and one last aruguementive to explain why abortion should. On January 22, 1973, the United States Supreme Court legalized abortion. When the it ruled that abortion was legal, the court not only gave women the right to choose but also gave the unborn babies a right to die. Since that day, millions upon millions of unborn children have been ripped apart, burned with saline solutions, and sucked from their mothers?wombs.

With every abortion that occurs another inaudible scream from the unborn child is silenced and the rights of that child are taken away . If someone where to be asked if murder was wrong, the general answer would be yes. When that same person is asked if abortion is murder, the answer may be yes, but most likely the answer is no. Why do most people think that murder is wrong, but do not agree that abortion is murder? The reason for this contradiction is that most people believe that the unborn infant is not a human, but an organ or part of the womans body, which would make the act of aborting the child just the same as removing an appendix. This problem of when life begins stems from the inconsistencies which come from the case of Roe v.

Wade. The Supreme Court interrupted that by the ninth and fourteenth amendments that a woman has the right to an abortion. The court that day, however, did not rule when a life begins for a human. If society is to assume that a fetus is a human the second it leaves the uterus, then what is the unborn baby three minutes from birth , a monkey. When an unborn baby is aborted, society must realize that an organ was not taken out, but a living human being.

This would make abortion wrong because according to law, no one has the right to take away anthers life. With many people considering the cases of unwanted pregnancy due to rape or incest to be acceptable, they must realize that the child is not the crime. Societys reason behind this is, why should the woman suffer from the pain and remembrance that the pregnancy brings. Even though cases of abortion due to rape and incest only make up one percent of the total number abortion performed, there is no reason why 15,000 unborn babies should be murdered annually. Why should the baby be condemned to death because of a crime that was committed by another person.

If innocent people should be condemned to death because they are the result of the crime, then instead of imprisoning or putting death a convicted murder we should kill one of that prisoners family members. If the woman does not want to have the baby they could either carry the unborn baby until full term and give the child up for adoption, or go within twenty four hours to a hospital and have the rapists semen removed before conception. The last reason why abortion should be wrong is the use of it as genocide. With the growing technologies in the world today, society is able to see and hear their child inside the mother. Technology today also allows humans to find out if there is something wrong with the child or if the child is male or a female.

Many times this advanced warning can help the parents cope with the trauma if something is wrong with their baby; however, many couples are opting to have the unborn babies aborted rather than keeping them. The couples logic is that they were looking out for the childs well-being or that they did not want a girl but a boy. If they are trying to protect their child, why do they kill the unborn baby? God for some reason is giving them a child who is not normal and rather then parents thinking that the child is a blessing the parents see the child as a freak of nature. God will not have giving that child to them if He knew the parents could not handle the child. Parents are also using the same technology, in order to see if the child will be a certain gender.

There is nothing wrong with this, but many parents after finding out the child does not have the gender the want abort it. Almost fifty years ago the world stopped a man named Hitler because he was committing genocide. The reason he was murdering millions of people was because he wanted a race of blond hair and blue humans to rule the world. If the Holocausts were consider wrong fifty years ago, why is not the genocide that is happening in the United States. Also the world would be a dull place if society was made up of one gender and people with a certain eye or hair color. Many different reasons are given why women have abortions in this country. Since the decision of Roe v. Wade, twenty-two million unborn children have died.

With these children dead, so are their dreams and ideas that could have revolutionized the world. When the government allowed abortions to be legal, they also put themselves in the same category with men like Stalin and Hitler. The citizens of the United States need to wake up and see that the holocausts did not end in Germany but continue today on American soil. At one time blacks did not have rights because the were consider below white and not citizens. America needs to realize that unborn children are also citizens and have rights.

Even though these babies can not be heard and are not able to contact their congressmen to suggest that a law against the murdering of them should be legalized, society should realizes they have a voice through their vote. Religion.

Abortion

Abortion One of the most controversial topics over the years, and still today, is abortion. Is abortion murder or not? When does a fetus become a human? There are no answers to these questions. Everyone individual has their own beliefs on whether or not abortion is justifiable. Abortions have been performed throughout many of centuries. Recently, there has been a number of court cases that has changed the legality of abortions, especially in the United States, for example Roe v. Wade. Even religions have changed their views on abortions over the course of the years.

In the abortions wars there are two parties, pro-life and pro-choice. Pro-life believes that abortion is murder and is completely immoral. Pro-choice, however, believes that it is the mother’s choice if she wishes to terminate the pregnancy or not. There are countless ways to perform an abortion. Some are obviously much safer. Even then there are some serious side effects that may happen during or after an abortion, both physical and psychological. This essay is just skimming the top of the abortion issue.

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Hopefully it will give you a general idea of how complicated this topic is. Before there was a legal system, as we know it, abortions were decided just by your religious beliefs. Judaism believed that the life of someone already born is more important then that of the unborn. Therefore is the mother’s welfare is at risk an abortion is permitted. However it is not acceptable to terminate a pregnancy for any other reason. In Islamic beliefs a woman has the right to have an abortion, until the soul enters the fetus, between 40 to 120 days after conception. Buddhists believe that abortion is justifiable. They say that the fate of the unborn child is not to come into the world at this time.

The Bible says in Num 5:27″God mandates ‘trial by ordeal’ for women accused by their husbands of adultery. The priest is instructed to make a potion, the accused is ordered to drink it, and if she miscarries, she is considered guilty.”(Abortion in history) Early Catholics didn’t believe that the soul entered the fetus until later, 40 days for boys and 90 days for girls. Only in 1869 did the Catholic Church declare that the soul entered the fetus at conception, therefore rendering abortion murder. Until the second half of the nineteenth century, the English Common Law was that abortions were permitted until the quickening, that is until the baby started moving. After that, with the new advances in the medicine field we came to understand more what happens to a woman’s body during pregnancy and abortions. The abortion laws were made to protect the women from uncertified abortionists.

There is one remarkable legal battle that changed the American abortion laws to what they are now, Roe v. Wade. It took place in 1973 in Texas. Roe, Norma McCorvey, was an anonymous plaintiff against the State. The ruling, abortion is legal.

It gives the mother the right of whether or not to terminated her pregnancy. However, that does not give the woman the right to terminate her pregnancy for any reason during all nine months. “The court said that the woman may have an abortion until fetal viability, the time at which it first becomes realistically possible for a fetus to live outside the woman’s body. At that point the state’s interest outweighs the woman’s right.” (Roe v. Wade) There are obvious exceptions to that law if the mother’s health is at risk. And just as a passing comment, Roe has now changed sides.

She was an active abortion activist for close to 20 years. Now she is just as involved in the opposing side. She has converted to Christianity and has been baptized. She is a leader for the anti-abortionists. The methods of abortion are divided into early abortions and later abortions.

The newest addition, just approved by the FDA, is the RU-486 pill. Also known as mifepristone or the abortion pill. It may be used from the fifth week until the seventh. It is a chemical that interferes with the function of the placenta, which in turn starves the fetus. The fetus is then expelled using misoprostol.

The abortion takes place over a few days. The woman may bleed for about 9 days, and may experience nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and painful cramping. Other way of abortion is vacuum aspiration, used from the sixth week until the sixteenth. This is performed by inserting a powerful suction tube into the uterus. The force of the suction removes the fetus. Possible complications are infection, cervical lacerations and uterine perforation. There is another method to abort a fetus, which is not approved by the FDA, it is called methotrexate.

It is used from the fifth week until the ninth. Methotrexate interferes with the growth process, which is why it is used in the treatment of cancer. The fetus is then expelled using misoprostol. Methods of late abortions include dilation and evacuation. In which the fetus is removed by forceps.

The fetus is torn apart limb by limb. The complications are infection, cervical lacerations and uterine perforation. This method is used from the thirteenth week until the twentieth. Prostaglandin or misoprostol is also to terminate the pregnancy. It is used to induce premature labour.

Live births are common. The complications include convulsions, vomiting and cardiac arrest. It may be used from the sixteenth week until the thirty-eighth. Digoxin induction is used from the sixteenth week until the thirty-second. It involves injecting a lethal chemical into the fetus’ heart.

It is followed by an induced labour. Saline abortion is when a salty solution is injected into the amniotic fluid. The salt poison’s the fetus. This method is rarely used due to the severe health risks for the woman. The last method used is the partial birth abortion. This used from the twentieth week until almost the last weeks of the pregnancy.

The baby is pulled into the birth canal. Then a catheter is used to suction the baby’s brains, so it fits through the canal in one piece. According to the Westside Pregnancy Resource Center, the leading causes of abortion related deaths are hemorrhage, infection, embolism, anesthesia and undiagnosed ectopic pregnancies. The risk of breast cancer doubles for women having their first abortion. The risk is multiplies with every other abortion.

The woman can lower the risk by giving birth to a child. Compared to woman how haven’t had an abortion the relative risk of cervical cancer is 2.3 for those who have had one abortion. For those who have had multiple abortions the relative risk jumps to 4.92. There are similar elevated risks for ovarian and liver cancer. Another health risk if pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) which is potentially life threatening and can lead to ectopic pregnancy and reduced fertility.

Patients who have chlamydia, which is 20-27% seeking abortions, 23% will develop PID within four weeks of the abortion. Those who don’t have chlamydia have only a 5% risk of developing PID. Teenagers, who account for 30% of all abortions, are at higher risks of suffering from complications. According to the Westside Pregnancy Resource Center, in a study of post-abortion women, only eight weeks after their abortion found that 44% complained of nervous disorders, 36% had troubles sleeping, 31% had regrets about their decision and 11% had been prescribed psychotropic drugs by their doctor. Another study found that more than 19% of the women suffer from diagnosable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Some of the symptoms of PTSD include hyperarousal (anxiety attacks, irritability, difficulty concentrating, disturbed sleeping habits ..

), intrusion (the reexperience of the traumatic event at unexpected times, flashbacks), constriction (the numbing or inability to recall the abortion or important parts of it). Some women, 30-50%, experience sexual dysfunction immediately after the abortion. The problems sometimes include loss of pleasure, increased pain, an aversion to sex or males, or promiscuity. Some women suffer for only a brief period of time, others for a long time. Of the women who experience post-abortion sequelea, 60% reported having suicidal thoughts. Twenty-eight percent attempted suicide, of which half attempted more than once.

Approximately 45% of all abortions are repeat abortions. “Abortion rights are pro-life. They give a woman the right to control her own body, which is part of her right to her own freedom and life. An embryo, in contrast, is pre-human, only potential, not actual life. As such, it cannot possess any rights.” (Leonard Peikoff) Those who believe that it is the woman’s choice to have or not to have an abortion are called pro-choice.

This is how they perceive abortion. During the first trimester the embryo is undistinguishable mass of cells that lives in the woman’s body, its host. Therefore it’s obvious that the host should decide whether or not to terminated the growth of something in them. “If you call the embryo an ‘unborn child’, then you could call, with equal logic, any adult an ‘undead corpse'”. (Leonard Peikoff) The embryo has the potential to become a child, in the womb it is not a child.

Seeing that being a parent is a tremendous responsibility, should we enforce that on anyone? Does anyone have the right to tell a woman what she is allowed to do her body? Is that not one of the fundamentals of abortion? The woman is the one who must suffer the discomfort of being pregnant and having to go through the labour. Not only does she have to go through the physical changes; she must also go through the emotional states of pregnancy. Yes, there is always adoption. But she must still go through the pregnancy. The flip side of the coin is pro-life. They strongly believe that abortion is murder. There is child growing inside the womb.

The mother has no right to end a life. Life begins at conception. To terminate that life unjustly is immoral. To kill a child simply because the mother feels herself unfit to care for a child is completely unacceptable. If a woman chooses abortion she is being selfish.

She isn’t taking into account that there is another being dependent on her, her very own child. There are other choices other than abortion, ones that preserve the precious life of the fetus. The first is not getting pregnant in the first place. Contraception is so openly available and inexpensive. Adoption should not be over-looked.

With adoption the mother won’t have to care for the child and no harm will come to it. Pro-life leaders feel that they must feel that they must fight for these defenseless children. Did you know that one child is aborted every 22 seconds in the United States. Another interesting fact is “77% of the pro-choice leaders are male. One hundred percent of them will never get pregnant.” (Rodman & Buckley) I can’t classify myself as pro-choice nor could I call myself pro-life. I do believe that the embryo becomes a life at the moment of conception. However, I don’t believe that abortion, within the first trimester, is murder.

After the first trimester the embryo becomes a fetus and to end its life is wrong. By the end of the first trimester a woman should know whether or not she is willing to care for a baby. Adoption I think is a very good alternative. I think that pro-choice does have many good points. Especially those on the right of freedom and the right to choose what happens to your body.

Pro-life has, for me, the strongest point, which is that the fetus is a child that has started at conception. Abortion for myself is not an option. For many it is though. If the abortion is performed within the first trimester that, to me, is acceptable. If an abortion is to be performed after that is should be for only one reason, which is the mother’s health is at risk.

Social Issues.

Abortion

Abortion Abortion has been one of the topics of hot debate for the last three decades in our nation. Since the Roe v/s Wade decision in 1973, some Americans feel the need to ponder whether aborting fetuses is a moral action. On the one hand, some people feel that abortion should be legal because a woman has a right to choose whether she wants to continue a pregnancy or not. It’s her body. On the other hand, some feel that fetuses have no advocates and deserve a right to live, so it is immoral to abandon their rights and kill them. This issue is not only at the center of political debate, but philosophical debate as well.

In this paper, I will examine and critique Mary Anne Warren’s On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion, where she examines the moral humanity of the fetus and its right to life. Mary Anne Warren describes how abortion should be kept legal without any restrictions on it. She states that the pro-abortion argument should center around the moral status of the baby, not simply on the rights of the mother. Yet, she does criticize those who defend abortion as the right to control one’s body, it would be very odd to describe, say, breaking a leg, as damaging one’s property, and much more appropriate to describe it as injuring oneself (Warren, 314). She uses this analogy to show the inappropriateness of a woman’s body being her property.

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She continues her work by using Judith Thomson’s paper, A Defense of Abortion as a tool to navigate her idea that abortion is morally permissible, even if a fetus has moral rights. Judith Thomson, according to Warren, says, a woman is under no moral obligation to complete an unwanted pregnancy (Warren, 315). Warren uses one of Thomson’s analogies to help state further rationalize her hypothesis. The analogy is this: What if you found yourself in bed next to a famous violinist with your kidneys hooked up to his body. He will remain unconscious while he shares your kidneys for nine months. No one else can save him because you have the same blood type. If you don’t continue this act of sharing for a period of nine months, he will die.

If you do continue the procedure willingly, he will live. The question becomes, if you are an anti-abortionist will you stay consistent and feel obligated to save his life? Warren says that it is absurd to feel as though it would be murder if one declined to share their body (Warren, 316). She concludes her use of this analogy by agreeing with Thomson: even though a fetus is a human, a woman still has a right to obtain an abortion (Warren, 317). Even though Warren agrees with Thomson on some levels, she does mention one problem with this. A fetus comes into existence as a result of the woman’s actions; the violinist does not.

This is when she breaks off from Thomson and forms her own opinion: the need for the realization that a fetus is not a person (distinguishing between human and person) and does not have a right to life. Section II of Warren’s article attempts to define what a person is, to follow through with her claim that a fetus may be a human, but is not a person, so therefore has no moral humanity. According to Warren, to be human deals with genetic humanity, the personhood deals with moral humanity (Warren, 319). She claims that if you are a person you have moral status and your rights should be respected, if you are not a person none of that applies to you. So all she has to do is prove that a fetus is not a person, and that will prove that abortion is moral.

She gives five different characteristics that classify what a person is: (1) consciousness and the ability to feel pain, (2) reasoning and solving problems, (3) self-motivated activity, (4) communication with numerous possible content, (5) self-concept of individuality or racial ethnicity (Warren, 320). If one refers to the five standards of being a person, a fetus could not be a person, so abortion is therefore moral, according to Warren’s hypothesis. She admits that a person need not have all of the traits, but should exhibit a few. However, she does not state which traits are crucial for the reward of personhood (Warren, 320). This reasoning opens up a window of opportunity for critics to say that she is moralizing infanticide, because an infant is no more of a person than a fetus is according to her five standards.

Her response to this is that killing infants would deprive other people of happiness, because they might want to raise the child themselves, which is why people put tax dollars into orphanages. This argument is very insufficient. People see murdering innocent children as inherently wrong and evil. We refuse to kill them not because it may ruin the happiness of the potential parents, but in regards to the welfare of the child itself. Other questions can arrive out of this argument as well, such as: What about people that are in a constant vegetative state? Do they not have personhood? Do we have the right to kill them? What about animals? Can we torture and kill them anytime we want after taking them into our homes? I don’t know of many people that would agree, including Warren herself. Although there are a few holes in her overall justification of personhood, there is one assertion that she concludes with that is more powerful than anything else in her article.

It is when she challenges all people that feel she is being immoral, to step up to plate and be willing to provide care for unwanted infants and to confront a society that is not willing to afford the care for these young ones. I myself have made this claim too often when I hear of pro-lifers that are pro-welfare reform or who are against giving money or simply helping organizations that help to insure the stable well-being of an unwanted infant. I don’t recall hypocritical advocacy being on the list of a fetus’ hierarchy of needs. In the beginning of her article she says: we cannot hope to convince those who consider abortion a form of murder, of the existence of such a right unless we are able to produce a clear and convincing refutation of the traditional antiabortion argument, and this has not, to my knowledge, been done (Warren, 314). Well, to my knowledge she herself has not done this. Mary Anne Warren has written a very detailed and understandable article, however, her claims are not consistent or convincing and may seem a bit heartless, but nonetheless she presents them concisely with charisma, keeping the reader on a philosophical seesaw, anxiously agreeing and disagreeing throughout her piece.

Abortion

David Galinsky
Health
DOES ABORTION SANCTION EVIL?
By Joseph Kellard from Capitalism Magazine/Feb.98
This interesting article written by Joseph Kellard is a pro-choice article that
examines the issue of abortion from a moral perspective. He comments on the opinions of
Christian Conservatives and compares their thinking to Adolph Hitlers feelings on
abortion. Kellard points out the irony of anti-abortionists when they say that all life is
precious, when they actually discount the life of the pregnant woman.

Conservative syndicated columnist, Cal Thomas is quoted as saying that
abortions legalization is a goose-step toward Nazi concentration camps. He said that
pro-abortionists are creating a culture of death, much like the Nazis did. He goes so far
as blaming the violent acts of criminals on people who support abortion. Other
conservative anti-abortionists call the legalization of abortion the American Holocaust.

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Kellard quoted Adolph Hitler in Mein Kampf, as saying I put an end to the idea
that a womans body belongs to her…Nazi ideals demand that the practice of abortion
shall be exterminated with a strong hand. Hitler sentenced Aryan women who had
abortions to hard labor after the first offense, and to death after the second offense.
Kellard goes on to say that Conservative Christian anti-abortionists have similar beliefs to
Adolph Hitler. He actually feels that in some ways Hitler was more lenient because some
anti-abortionists believe that a woman should be executed after her first abortion, not her
second!
Kellard believes that Hitler and anti-abortionists both deny individual autonomy
and render people submissive. He goes on to criticize the idea that all life is precious,
because in fact the womans life is not considered as important as the embryo or fetus.
This makes a woman no more important than a farm cow, who is demanded to breed
whenever she gets pregnant. This is the way Nazi youth were trained.

Finally, Kellard comments on the anti-abortionists idea of the legalization of
abortion breeding a culture of death.He names the anti-abortionists, who kill
pro-abortionists or bomb abortion clinics, as the ones to blame for giving murderers and
terrorists emotional fuel.
In this article, Joseph Kellard lists the common criticisms that anti-abortionists
have against pro-abortionists. He takes each criticism and turns them around and points
the same finger of disapproval against the anti-abortionists.

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