A STUDY ON MARKET POTENTIAL AND AWARENESS OF KITCHEN GARDENING
A kitchen garden is where herbs and vegetables are grown around the house for household use. Since early times a small plot near to the house has been used for growing a variety of vegetables according to the season and to cater domestic needs. Local varieties of veggies such as radish, chillies, beans, pumpkins, banana, tomato, green leafs, brinjals etc. were grown in the kitchen gardens for their house hold needs. Health is very important for people. To stay healthy it’s very important to have a healthy and proper diet. A healthy food means a balanced mix of rice, vegetables, pulses, grains, green leafs and fruit etc. For our health vegetables are a very important part of a good diet as it contains various nutrients for many body to function. Good foods and vegetables gives protection against disease, vegetables play an essential role in human life. Its very important to have a healthy food since now a days we consume lots of fruits and vegetables that have been highly sprayed with chemicals and pesticides to keep them look good and for their extended life in shops varieties of vegetables are harvested before their ripe which makes them stay longer in their travel and they can be sold. Kitchen garden or home grown vegetables are healthier and more favorable than they are bought because of not using pesticides. In this study we have collected information on potential market for kitchen garden in Coimbatore city to identify the customer interest towards organic food products.
Kitchen garden is defined as Growing vegetables and fruits in terrace or backyard of house to satisfy the purpose of household A kitchen garden does not necessarily require much land or equipment. Many plants will grow happily in containers, and varieties of vegetables, herbs and flowers are available in smaller sizes for growing on patios, decks, balconies, and even on windowsills. With its combination of flowers, herbs and vegetables providing varieties of color, scent and form, a kitchen garden can be as pleasing as a formal flower bed. Kitchen Gardens depend on the gardeners for maintenance and are spaces made meaningful by the actions of people during the course of their every-day lives
This study is to identify the attitude of consumers towards kitchen garden and their awareness and perception and towards organic kitchen garden where people grow their own vegetables in their roof top or terrace or backyard in Coimbatore city. Early researches claim that people in Coimbatore are aware of organic food products and there is a lack of marketing and organic food products are costly since there are only few producers. About the product. This research is about kitchen garden where consumers can produce their own vegetables in their house to manage their needs and they can use the vegetables which are naturally home grown without any pesticides and they are benefited.
Kitchen gardening programs are increasingly popular in India and overseas. People are embracing the benefits of teaching and learning around sustainable living. Biodiversity, nature and climatechange are increasingly important topic areas for present situation.It was determined that funding was to be used to establishherb and vegetable gardens and kitchen facilities. As part of the pilot, were to implement a cross-curricularapproach to developing teaching and learning activities, with people growing and preparing produce.
An evaluation of the pilot was commissioned. The evaluation examined:
The extent to which people have learned and understanding of food production, nutrition and health including:
How people have been engaged in an interdisciplinary or cross-curricular approach
Understanding and behaviour of students regarding healthy food choices.
The identification of professional learning programs and other potential resources that would be needed to support future programs
Resource capacity – human and financial
Professional learning activities
Learning resource needs
This thesis explores the use of Kitchen Gardens as a potential agent for social change. The focus is primarily on kitchen gardens to serve as a vehicle for societal change. At the turn of the Century, was concerned about the loss of practical life skills amongst the population which felt was due to the industrial revolution. Before starting the research I had spent a. lot of time studying environmental sustainability and exploring what it may mean, look or feel like to be ‘sustainable’. Notably, the changes that in society brought about by the onset of the industrial revolution and the loss of traditional farming and practical life skills.Having grown up learning a lot of practical skills.Kitchen Garden and underlying potential for social change, not only in the arena of healthy food choices and tackling the obesity epidemic but also as a tool in the transition towards a more sustainable, green and environmentally healthy future.With relation to environmental education, there have been persistent and critical commentaries about the effectiveness of environmental education programmes and little evidence that these programs have a sustained it may, therefore, be time for a different approach. There has also been a focus of social change in some of the historical lessons learned. This vision was often met with resentment however, especially by those who did not feel that people should change society and also by those who did not feel society needed changing . This research question necessitated a. qualitative approach with content analysis of secondary sources including Kitchen Garden as the main sources of data.
For three decades there has been intense activity in environmental education stimulated by international bodies, facilitated by NGOs and mediated through national and regional activities, governments, national associations, regional forums and local groups. It is however unclear what has been achieved and how far a move towards a. more environmentally educated, concerned and responsible citizenry has been made. The publication of Education for Sustainability highlighted that many issues remain unresolved and demonstrates some seemingly unbridgeable divisions in the worldviews of the theorists of environmental education, in their ideas for the future, and in their notions of strategies to achieve them. In the mean time, people struggle to find their own path through a bewildering mixture of often contradictory advice and guidance, and amid doubts about their effectiveness and progress. There have been persistent and critical commentaries about the effectiveness of environmental education programmes and there is little evidence that these programs lead to a. sustained effect.
On top of this, recent international meetings have also asserted a strong social change agenda for environmental education that challenges the adequacy of the field’s historical disciplinary relationships. Both formal and non formal education are indispensable to changing peoples attitudes so that they have the capacity to assess and address their sustainable development concerns….To be effective, environment and development education should deal with the dynamics of both the physical/ biological and socio-economic environment and human (which may include spiritual) development should be integrated in all disciplines Further recommendations about environmental education were tabled at the International Forum of Non GovernmentOrganisations (NGO) held in parallel with UNCED. These reconunendations form part of the Treaty on Environmental Education for Sustainable Societies and Global Responsibility.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Agricultural workers lack sufficient incomes to meet their food and nutritional demands adequately. An alternative way of improving their food supply is practicing kitchen garden farming. They contribute the highest human development index in terms of GDP but this has not been translated into food security. In the developing countries food production has gone down as result of poor governance, poor land management, and marginalization of the peasant production and rural urban migration which has deprived the food production areas of the much needed workforce. The agricultural workers are the least paid all over the world and will be the most affected by food inflation. The living wage is not yet achievable in any part of the world and as the investors compete in the global perspectives solutions to food security through salary increments are not tenable. The kitchen garden is one efficient use of the land resource. The kitchen gardens can be an example of how to attain food security not only to Coimbatore but to the entire country when the knowledge and skills are transferred to other areas.
The kitchen garden falls under bio-intensive and participatory innovation which can provide year round availability, access and consumption of adequate amount and varieties which supply not only the calorific demands but also the micronutrients by the resource poor. Iron deficiency affects about two thirds of the world population and consequently reduces work capacity of entire populations. This serious handicap to development can only be overcome by the diversity embodied in the kitchen garden.
OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH
To know the demographic profile of customers.
To understand the market potential.
To understand the level of awareness and preference of customers.
Strategies to promote kitchen garden.
To find out what kitchen gardens are and how they are designed.
To establish the challenges that are faced by the kitchen gardens and what is being done to overcome these challenges.
NEED OF THE STUDY :
To meet the demand of fresh vegetables in the locality.
To generate extra income for the Household.
To guide the adopted beneficiaries towards self sufficiency.
To improve the diet of the family.
To create enthusiasm in the community as a whole for adoption of intensive kitchen gardening.
To increase efficient utilization of place.
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS
The study covered the Coimbatore district in Tamilnadu. The target households were those that practice kitchen garden. It also focused on the impact of kitchen gardens on food security and household nutritional diversity. Since the study was done in an area that is urban, the results may not be applicable to rural areas. However, they may be true for other parts of Coimbatore that bear similar characteristics.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
M.Gomati& Dr. S.Kalyani (2016)1 conducted a study on the topic of “A Study on Awareness on Organic Food Products among General Public in Erode City, Tamilnadu, India”. The aim of this study is to to know the awareness level of general public and to identify the Sources which help them to know the Organic products. The study was conducted in the Erode city of Tamilnadu. The study is based on descriptive research design. Stratified random sampling was used to select the population and a sample of 100 respondents was drowned. Data was collected only by use of Questionnaires. The information gathered will be analyzed with the help of SPSS 16 software byusing the Tabular Presentation & Chi-Square Analysis to generate the statistical outputs. The result of the study showsthat the level of Awareness among the public about organic products are less than 50%.
Dr. Geetika Sharma & Dr. RakheeDewan (2015)2 conducted a study on the topic of “Factors Influencing Consumer Buying Behavior & Awareness towards Organic Food: A Study of Chandigarh &Panchkula Consumers”. The study will focus and to determine the Awareness of Organic Food Products & the purchase behavior, preference & factors affecting towards organic food of the selected location. This study was based on primary survey of 100 respondents living in the Chandigarh &Panchkula. The questionnaire was designed to record the responses on food safety concerns, frequency of buying behavior, from where they buy the products, awareness, attitude, factors effecting buying behavior, price effect on purchasing, behaviors towards organic food and effectiveness of sources for organic information. This study will help to create awareness amongst consumers about organic food by the organic companies.
S Priya, M Parameswari Bali, (2016)3 conducted a study on the topic of “Consumer attitude towards organic food products”. The study was focused on consumer attitude towards organic food roducts and carried out in Coimbatore City. A sample of 150 household respondents was taken, who are familiar with Organic Food Products by adopting multistage sampling technique. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics.
J.Padmathy&R.Saraswathy (2013)4 conducted a study on the topic of “A Study on the Consumers’ Buying Behavior Towards Organic Food Products In Thanjavur District”. The study investigates the relationship between variables that affect consumers buying behaviour for organic products and identifies the price levels consumers prefer to pay for organic products in the district. A sample of 200 respondents was taken using convenience sampling method. The primary data was collected from the respondents with the help of pre-tested structured opened and closed ended questionnaires. The data were analyzed by using regression and chi-square. The findings of the study reveal that there is significant relationship between the variables which affects consumers, buying behavior for organic products.
Uma.R&Dr.V.Selvam (2015)5 conducted astudy on the topic of “Analysis of Awareness among Consumers towards Organic Food Products: With Reference to Vellore Organic Consumers Perspective”. The aim of this study is to analyseconsumer awareness on organic food products with reference to Vellore City, TamilNadu. The study will be based on the data collected from the organic consumers in Vellore city, Tamil Nadu, India. A survey questionnaire will be developed to collect qualitative questionnaire from the consumers of thestudy. In this backdrop, the present research work is an attempt to explore basically on consumers level of awareness on organic food products with the consideration of Indian Organic industry. The finding of the study shows that organic food consumption is increasing due to environmental and health concerns associated with food products. The organic food products will expand to grow by overcoming the hindrances and also problems on implementing agricultural market in India.
Tomsik&Kutnohorska, (2013)6 Find that the organic food market consumer actually shows different attitudes, belief and behaviors in relation to health care. Most of the consumers perceive their health as an important part of their life and they regard organic food as rather healthier than the conventional food.
Umamaheshwari and Chandrasekar (2015)7 found that that organic products have a paradigm in its awareness and accessibility. Thus, Consumers are increasingly aware but they are reluctant in cost and availability about the range of products. The study revealed the positive impact of purchasing organic food products in market. It also as several other factors that drives consumer purchase of organic food products in the market. So, the literature reviewed produces mixed results as regards the attitudinal and perceptions of consumers towards organic food products.
Ninez(2010)8 lists general tendencies with respect to home garden food production systems based on 15 type-specific characteristics adopted from Ruthenberg and presents an ethnographical synthesis of home gardens across the globe. Home gardens are commonly established on lands that are marginal or not suitable for field crops or forage cultivation because of their size, topography, or location. The specific size of a home garden varies from household to household and, normally, their average size is less than that of the arable land owned by the household. However, this may not hold true for those families that do not own agricultural land and for the landless. New innovations and techniques have made home gardening possible even for the families that have very little land or no land at all. The home gardens may be delimited by physical demarcations such as live fences or hedges, fences, ditches or boundaries established through mutual understanding. Application of kitchen waste, animal manure, and other organic residues has been a practice amongst home gardeners and this exercise has helped to considerably increase the productivity and fertility of these gardens.
Dr. NilimaVarma (2016)9 the main reasons for purchasing organic food products are an expectation of a healthier and environmentally friendly means of production. Organic buyers tend to be older and higher educated than those who do not buy them.
K. Sudhalakshmi and K.M. Chinnadorai (2014)10 the growing awareness about the implication of global warming, non-bio degradable solid waste, harmful impact of pollutants etc,both marketer and consumers are switching to eco-friendly products and many companies have accepted their responsibility not to harm the environment and not to waste the natural resources.
S.Suganya and Dr. S.Aravinth (2014)11 the people do aware of what is happening to the surroundings with regards to the environment and ecology problems and most consumers perceived that organic food product is healthier.
MithileshVerma and V.K. Verma, (2013)12 the consumer thought that organic food products are good for the environment as well as good for the human health but there is lack of more awareness between consumers about organic food products.
M. Gomathi and Dr. Kalyani (2013)13 the awareness among the public about organic products are less than 50%. GolnazRezai, Phuah Kit Teng, Zainalabidin Mohamed and Mad NasirShamsudin (2012).the respondents were aware of the green concept which is a strong indicator of consumers’ intention to go green in food consumption.
Ed. Claude Alvarez (1996)14 is the first full document of the organic farming scene in India. From traditional agriculture through Green Revolution to the state-by state directory of organic farmers in the country, it also contains brief but very informative reviews on the publications on organic farming in India. It gives ample information about the various eco-friendly farming practices prevalent in the world. However, the lack of scientific studies and findings is a bit disappointing for a researcher seeking to validate organic farming through a conventional scientific approach.
SP.Palaniappan, K. Annadurai, (1999)15 and Organic Farming for Sustainable Agriculture. In a bleak scenario where there are hardly any books on the Indian context of organic farming, the above two are quite welcome. In both the books the emphasis is on the organic farming techniques, esp., nutrient and pest management. While Palaniappan’s book has more practical and useful information on these topics, the one by Dahama is superficial and a rehash of several books and typical of the genre of textbooks spewed out of the numerous north Indian publishing houses. Of the several scientific papers that conclude that a combination of organic manures and chemical fertilisers, the study by G B Singh and B S Dwivedi is typical recommending integration of organicmanures, green manures and biofertilisers with chemical fertilisers.
Margasagayam& Norman, (1997)16 One of the most significant studies that have a strong relevance to this study is the one on the organic farming in Pudukkottai, Tamil Nadu. The study on the cost benefit analysis, impact of organic farming on yield, soil, income& expenditure, ecology, debt, health, etc., of the 300 odd organic farmers of Pudukkottai district, Tamil Nadu, reveals that, despite the infancy stage of organic farming, the results are very encouraging. The cost – benefit ratio of some crops are already higher for organic farming. The yield did not show much difference in comparison with that of conventional agriculture.
E.van der Werf and A.de jager (1992)17The report describes two research programmes carried out on ecological agriculture in India. Experiences of twelve farmers, in transition towards ecological agriculture, are narrated and analysed. It points out that a gradual approach is crucial for success. The duration of the transition period is directly related to the previous farming system, specifically the amounts of mineral fertilisers used. An average transition takes three to five years. The comparative performance of seven farm pairs, consisting of one ecological and one conventional reference farm, is analysed in relation to agronomic and economic performance.
M. Janardhanan Nair (1997)18, Though restricted to the problems of paddy cultivation, the recommendations of the study are valid for the entire agriculture sector. Noteworthy among the observations are those on decreasing use of organic manures in the fields and the negative impacts of chemical pesticides. The Reportrecommends popularisation of biofertilisers and green manures; to initiate a ‘Green manure perennial planting Programme’; mechanical plants for manufacture of compost in Corporations and Municipalities, minimisation of use of insecticides; and to take up biological and mechanical control of rodents.
Parichard et al (2012)19, The adoption of organic production and processing is highly determined by market demand. Therefore, this is reflected in consumers’ perceptions and attitudes towards organic food products. This research draws on a survey of 390 respondents. Results indicated that the main reasons for purchasing organic food products are an expectation of a healthier and environmentally friendly means of production. Organic buyers tend to be older and higher educated than those who do not buy them. In addition, consumers’ trust in the authenticity of the goods and price are also issues. However, the main barrier to increase the market share of organic food products is consumer information.
Rinal Shah and PreetiPillai (2012)20 in their paper “Consumer’s Environmental Concern and its Influence on their Purchase Intention: SEM Approach” tried to assess the purchasing intention of the consumer by highlighting five factor viz., recyclable products, not-used-on animal products, energy conservation, organically grown and ozone-friendly. Based on the factors objectives were framed to analyse the factors responsible in understanding the environmental concern and to measure the purchase intention in relation with environmental concern. The study used structural equation model and found that recycle product had strong impact towards environmental concern and their purchasing intention. The rest four factors have no impact on the objectives.
Sathyendra Kumar AD and Dr. H. M. Chandrashekar (2015)21 revealed that an attempt to understanding the consumer perception about organic product and marketing in Mysore city. Primary data are collected from Retail outlets of Organic products, Organic Products Marketing Agencies, by administering the structured questionnaires through simple random sampling method. Parentage analysis and SPSS will be adopted to analysis the consumer?s response towards organic food product in Mysore city. The results concluded that most of the consumer especially in urban people prefer organic food product.
MdTareq Bin Hossain and Pei Xian Lim (2016)22 evaluated the current status of consumers? buying behavior towards organic foods in the emerging market. A well structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to around 105 respondents randomly in Malaysia (Penang). The data collected are analysed using SPSS software with version 21.0 The study found that government support and policy, perceived beliefs and attitudes, knowledge and availability have a significant positive relationship with consumer behavior towards organic foods.
CHAPTER – III
OVERVIEW OF THE PROFILE
Continuously increasing food prices of basic kitchen items, fruits and vegetables the poor and fixed income groups are suffering from the decreasing real incomes and purchasing power. The marginal increase in the income of the poor people to enable them to gain access to food and improve their nutrition is the need of the present time. In cities and urban areas where there is shortage of land for farming and over-population, areas of land around the house that tend to be useless, overgrown by weeds and turned to refuse dump could be an means of ensuring household food security and nutrition if properly harnessed. With increasing civilization and western education, kitchen gardens are being incorporated into modern houses for easy and quick access to fresh food produce and products.
A kitchen garden has numerous definitions. It is more common French term; these gardens are meant to supply the household with some vegetables, fruits or herbs. When hearing the term “kitchen garden” it is easy to visualize a shelf full of little flowerpots containing a few herbs. This can include vegetables, fruits, berries, herbs and flowers. Kitchen gardens can be grown in the empty space available at the backyard of the house or a group of women can come together, identify a common place or land and grow desired vegetables, fruits, cereals etc that can benefit the women and community as a whole. There are many social benefits that have emerged from kitchen gardening practices; better health and nutrition, increasedincome,employment, food security within the household, and community social life. Households and small communities take advantage of vacant land and contribute not only to their household food needs but also the needs of their resident city.
Most of the developed countries are doing the successful kitchen gardens which are not accidental. They are the results of planning, constant care, and the will to make things grow. Among the many things a vegetable garden may offer toward a satisfying experience are fresh air, exercise, sunshine, knowledge, supplemental income, mental therapy, and fresh food, rich in vitamins and minerals, harvested at the best stage of maturity. Looking at the importance of kitchen gardening there is a need of sound policies, effective agricultural research and technology that can help to bring the unit cost saving productivity increase in food production. In this regard the concept of roof and pot gardening can serve as the activity to promote an integrated approach to low cost and ecologically sound cropping systems. This activity can help to improve the household food supply and nutrition to some extent particularly in the slums. The organic farming and horticulture institute of NARC is also trying to promote this activity they are will providing the technical assistance regarding the plantation, on processes such as seasonal seeds, hybrid seeds, organic fertilizer and compost, precautions for thedisease, insect control and training of the women to make them able to establish and maintain the pot and roof gardens in future as well. Regarding this social scientist in NARC has also designed a study to analyze the Social Attitude and acceptance of Kitchen gardening.
Study follows the following objectives
To find out the perception of women towards kitchen gardening;
To find out the issues and constraints related to kitchen gardening;
To suggest recommendation for promotion of kitchen gardening.
About home gardens
Home gardens are found in both rural and urban areas in predominantly small-scale subsistence agricultural systems. The very beginning of modern agriculture can be dated back to subsistence production systems that began in small garden plots around the household. These gardens have persistently endured the test of time and continue to play an important role in providing food and income for the family. Since the early studies of home gardens in the 1930s by the Dutch scholars Osche and Terra on mixed gardens in Java, Indonesia, there has been extensive contributions to the subject synthesizing definitions, species inventories, functions, structural characteristics, composition, socio-economic, and cultural relevance. Home gardens are defined in multiple ways highlighting various aspects based on the context or emphasis and objectives of the research. Gupta pointed out that the background and gender of the researcher or scientist may also bias their perception on home gardens and may not entirely reflect the opinion of the family involved in home gardening activities.
Definition of home gardening
Relying on research and observations on home gardens in developing and developed countries in five continents, Ninez formulated the following definition: ‘The household garden is a small-scale production system supplying plant and animal consumption and utilitarian items either not obtainable, affordable, or readily available through retail markets, field cultivation, hunting, gathering, fishing, and wage earning. Household gardens tend to be located close to dwelling for security, convenience, and special care. They occupy land marginal to field production and labor marginal to major household economic activities. Featuring ecologically adapted and complementary species, household gardens are marked by low capital input and simple technology.’
Generally, home gardening refers to the cultivation ofa small portion of land which may be around the household or within walking distance from the family home. Home gardens can be described as a mixed cropping system that encompasses vegetables, fruits, plantation crops, spices, herbs, ornamental and medicinal plants as well as livestock that can serve as a supplementary source of food and income. Fresco and Westphalspecify home gardens as a cropping system composed of soil, crops, weeds, pathogens and insects that converts resource inputs – solar energy, water, nutrients, labor, etc. – into food, feed, fuel, fiber and pharmaceuticals. Kumar and Nair, while acknowledging that there is no standard definition for ‘a home garden’, summarize the shared perception by referring to it as ‘…an intimate, multi-story combinations of various trees and crops, sometimes in association with domestic animals, around homesteads’, and add that home garden cultivation is fully or partially committed for vegetables, fruits, and herbs primarily for domestic consumption.
Adding to this, others have described a home garden as a well-defined, multi-storied and multi-use area near the family dwelling that serves as a small-scale supplementary food production system maintained by the household members, and one that encompasses a diverse array of plant and animal species that mimics the natural eco-system. Characteristics of a home garden Michelle and Hanstadlist five intrinsic characteristics of home gardens: 1) are located near the residence; 2) contain a high diversity of plants; 3) production is supplemental rather than a main source of family consumption and income; 4) occupy a small area; and 5) are a production system that the poor can easily enter at some level. There is a vast body of literature presenting research and case studies focusing on the role of home gardens as agroforestry or food production systems, or a combination of both. Home gardens are ecologically divided into two categories: tropical and temperate. Much of theliterature focuses on home gardens in the tropical areas. There is also a substantial interest for home gardens in South and South-East Asia and Africa. Conversely, only a few documented studies exist on home gardens from temperate regions and from developed countries
Ninez.lists general tendencies with respect to home garden food production systems based on 15 type-specific characteristics adopted from Ruthenberg and presents an ethnographical synthesis of home gardens across the globe. Home gardens are commonly established on lands that are marginal or not suitable for field crops or forage cultivation because of their size, topography, or location. The specific size of a home garden varies from household to household and, normally, their average size is less than that of the arable land owned by the household. However, this may not hold true for those families that do not own agricultural land and for the landless. New innovations and techniques have made home gardening possible even for the families that have very little land or no land at all. The home gardens may be delimited by physical demarcations such as live fences or hedges, fences, ditches or boundaries established through mutual understanding. Application of kitchen waste, animal manure, and other organic residues has been a practice amongst home gardeners and this exercise has helped to considerably increase the productivity and fertility of these gardens. While some similarities exist across the board, each home garden is unique in structure, functionality, composition, and appearance as they depend on the natural ecology of the location, available family resources such as labor, and the skills, preferences, and enthusiasm of family members. Home garden cultivation tends to be quite dynamic. The decisions related to the selection of crops, procuring inputs, harvesting, management, and so forth are mostly driven by the consumption and income generation needs of the household
A study from Indonesia observed that the structure, composition, intensity of cultivation, and diversity of home gardens can be subjected to the socioeconomic status of the household. For instance, as the families became economically stable their cultivation shifted from staples to horticultural crops and some families began to raise livestock. Based on the economics of the household, Niñez differentiated two types of home gardens: 1) subsistence gardens and 2) budget gardens. Access to planting material and social capital are noted as important attributes to species diversity in gardens. Collectively, the ecological potential, economic status, and social elements influence the presence of food and non-food crops and animals in the garden. Additionally, Moreno-Black and colleagues identified that limitations resulting from factors such as opportunities for off-farm employment and family structure as well as local customs influence the development and composition of the gardens. The home garden frequently uses family labor – women, children, and elders are of particular importance in their management – but, depending on the economic capacity and affordability, households may hire wage laborers to cultivate and maintain the home garden that in turn affect the composition and intensity of home garden activities. Like any other food production system, home gardens may be vulnerable to harsh environmental conditions such as drought and floods. Despite the fact that home gardening activities demand a lesser amountof horticultural and agronomic know-how,crop losses and other negative implications can be reduced when the household members are empowered with better skills and knowledge.
Experiences of home gardens from developing countries :
Home gardens have been an integral part of local food systems in developing countries around the world. Many studies provide descriptive evidence and analysis of home gardens in developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America and pinpoint their numerous benefits to communities and families. They encapsulate perpetual small-scaled subsistence agricultural systems established by the households to obtain and supplement the food requirements of the family. Home gardens are mainly intended to grow and produce food items for family consumption, but they can be diversified to produce outputs that have multiple uses including indigenouskindling and alternative fuel source, manure, building material, and animal feed. Chris Landon-Lane provides an overview of the benefits of home gardens and describes home gardens as a ‘place for innovation’ with the potential to improve the livelihood of peri-urban and rural communities. In-depth exploration of past and more recent compositions on home gardens worldwide not only affirms Landon-Lane’s insight but also recognize additional advantages. We broadly categorized benefits of home gardening into three components: (1) social; (2) economic; and (3) environmental benefits. These benefits are presented and explained through the vast experiences on home gardens from developing ations around the world.
Enhancing food and nutritional security Reviews of studies from various countries reveal that the degree and combination socio-cultural impacts on societies engaged in home gardening vary across the board. Multiple social benefits of home gardens include enhancing food and nutritional security in many socio-economic and political situations, improving family health and human capacity, empowering women, promoting social justice and equity, and preserving indigenous knowledge and culture 20. The most fundamental social benefit of home gardens stems from their direct contributions to household food security by increasing availability, accessibility, and utilization of food products. Home gardens are maintained for easy access to fresh plant and animal food sources in both rural and urban locales. Food items from home gardens add substantially to the family energy and nutritive requirements on a continuous basis. A pioneering research study on home gardens conducted by Ochse and Terra in the early 1930s states that home gardens led to 18% of the caloric and 14% of the protein consumption by households. Subsequent studies on the Javanese home gardens point out a direct link between successful home gardens and households’ nutritional status, and observe an increase in households’food consumption with intensification of home food production.
Javanese experiences illustrating the potential of home gardens to add to households’ food supply and nutrition, as well as their eminence as multi-storied agro-ecosystem in the tropics, heightened the global attention towards home gardens. Foods from home gardens varied from horticultural crops to roots to palm and animal products; further plants from the gardens are also used as spices, herbs, medicines, and fodder for the animal. Although home gardens are not generally reputed as a staple crop production base, Thaman documented that Pacific Islanders obtained their main staple root crops from home gardens. Similar reports were found from Nepal, Yucatan Peninsula, Bangladesh, Peru, Ghana, and imbabwe. Resource-poor families often depended more on home gardens for their food staples and secondary staples than those endowed with a fair amount of assets and resources such as land and capital. For poor and marginalized families unable to afford expensive animal products to fulfill their nutritional needs, home gardens offer a cheap source of nutritive foods. Through gardening, households can have better access to a diversity of plant and animal food items that lead to an overall increase in dietary intake and boost the bioavailability and absorption of essential nutrients. As stated by Marsh, home gardens provide easy day-to-day access to an assortment of fresh and nutritious foods for the household and accordingly those homes obtained more than 50% of the vegetables, fruits, tubers, and yams from their garden. Supporting this premise, different studies conclude that, while adding to the caloric quantity, home gardens supplement staple-based diet with a significant portion of proteins, vitamins , and minerals, leading to an enriched and balanced diet particularly for growing children and mothers. Additionally, plants from the gardens – especially spices and herbs – are used as flavor enhancers, teas, and condiments. Recently, countries like Bangladesh have been successful in increasing the availability and consumption of vitamin A-rich food items through national home gardening programs. Furthermore, the integration of livestock and poultry activities into home gardening reinforces food and nutritional security for the families as milk, eggs, and meat from home-raised animals provided the main and, in many instances, the only source of animal protein. In some places, home gardeners are also engaged in mushroom cultivation and beekeeping and evensmall fresh water fish ponds are incorporated into the garden space adding to the share of proteins and other nutrients available for the family.
Evidence from around the world suggests that home gardens can be a versatile option to address food insecurity in various challenging situations, and thus they have attracted sponsorship by numerous government and nongovernmentalorganizations. Consequently, home garden production has significantly increased in the country and has been instrumental in reducing ‘hidden hunger’ and disease cause by micronutrient deficiency. In an attempt to assess the dynamics of home garden evolution, home gardens make available a small but continuous flow of subsistence food products for the household. Also, home gardens provide the main source of staple food for people in heavily degraded and densely populated areas with limited croplands.
Home gardens can ensure food to underprivileged and resources-poor households as they can be establish and maintained within a small patch of land or with no land using a few inputs. A study of home gardens in Cuba reveals that they were used as a strategy to increase resilience and ensure food security in the face of economic crisis and political isolation. T mitigate recurring food shortage and malnutrition, Cuban households obtained basic staple foods (rice and beans) through rations, but the households relied on their home gardens to obtain additional produce to diversify the family diet. Ensuring a reliable and convenient source of food, fiber, and fuel for the family, they are viewed as a robust food system in circumstances where population pressures and numerous resource limitations persist. In the Peruvian capital of Lima, home gardening has led to nutritional benefits to families living in slum areas by increasing the availability of carbohydrates as well as nutrient-rich vegetables and fruits that are not economically accessible for poor slum dwellers. The Global Hunger Index specified that the lack of political stability has escalated hunger and poverty in countries affected by conflicts. Similarly, environmental disaster can also have devastating impacts on communities and disable food production systems. Even though there are only a few published narratives, home gardens have been proposed as an option for food and nutritional security in disaster, conflict, and other post-crisis situations of. Home gardens based on enset and coffee are an integrated farming system that not only provide subsistence and complementary food products for Ethiopian families, especially during famines, but also provide the primary means of employment for the household. This trend still continues, and home gardens continue to significantly supplement household food security and sustenance. In recent years, several countries transitioning towards peace and stability and those that are recovering from natural disaster have been adopting policies that support home gardening to reduce the prevalence and severity of hunger and malnutrition.
Bandarinet. al. point out that, in a post-conflict setting, assistance and reconciliation mechanisms work best and result in environmental, social and economic benefits when there is a cultural or traditional linkage between the target population and the intervention. Hence, home garden projects offer a realistic solution as in most countries home gardening is a regular day-to-day activity amongst the household, especially for women. In addition, home gardens when properly managed provide a four-in-one solution to the food and nutrition problem by increasing household food availability, enabling greater physical, economic and social access, providing an array of nutrients, and protecting and buffering the household against food shortages.
Community of respondents are aware about Kitchen gardening and Home grown vegetables.
Implementing a Kitchen Gardening has satisfy family needs of respondents.
Knowledge and Interest in Kitchen Gardening.
Relationship between household members and the community.
People agree that Kitchen Garden products are produced without using chemicals.
Kitchen Garden will decrease the production cost by reducing the input purchases.
A STUDY ON MARKET POTENTIAL AND AWARENESS OF KITCHEN GARDENING
DEMOGRAPHIC INFORMATION :
Below 25b. 26 – 35c. 36 – 45d. Above 45
Studentb. Employeec. Self employed
Businesse. Retiredf. Others
Below Rs.10000b. Rs. 10001 – Rs. 25000
Rs. 25001 – Rs. 50000d. Above 50000
Total number of family numbers in household
Below Four b. Fourc. Fived. Sixe. Above Six
Type of house you live ?
Flats / Apartmentsb. Individual House
Do you own or rent your house ?
Primary reason for doing kitchen Gardening
Grow Fresh and Toxic free Vegetables.
Reducing cost of food.
Creating awareness for kitchen gardening
All of the above.
Consumer Awareness on Kitchen Gardening.
S.NO SA A N D SD
1. You have awareness about kitchen gardening. 2. You have awareness about home grown food vegetable. 3. Kitchen gardening has satisfy your family needs. 4 Your Community have awareness about kitchen gardening Indicate the knowledge and interest in the following subjects.
S.NO SA A N D SD
1. Describe your interest in Kitchen Gardening. 2. Rate your knowledge about kitchen gardening. 3. Preparing composition for your kitchen garden by own. 4 Knowledge about Proper time for planting vegetables. Attitude towards kitchen Gardening Production
S.NO SA A N D SD
1. To produce fresh and toxic free vegetables 2. To provide many kinds of vegetables for household consumption. 3. To provide short milestone of vegetables for cooking. 4. To save time for purchasing of vegetables at the market. 5. To create the relationship between household members and the community. Reason and Purpose of Kitchen Garden
S.NO SA A N D SD
1. Get fresh veggies/Fruits 2. Cost Efficiency/Budget Control 3. Hobby 4. Home grown / Taste 5. Awareness on Kitchen Gardening (Food Safety/Security) Problems faced in Kitchen Garden
S.NO SA A N D SD
1. Weeding 2. Attack of Animals and Birds 3. Lack of time 4. In Sufficiency of Water 5. Insects Rate the following statements by ticking the most appropriate box
S.NO SA A N D SD
1. Kitchen Garden products are produced without using chemicals. 2. Kitchen Gardening products contains more nutrients. 3. Kitchen Gardening is good for environment. 4. Kitchen Garden generates more income. 5. Kitchen Gardening Process is very easy. Benefits of KGC (Kitchen Gardening Cultivation)
S.NO SA A N D SD
1. KGC will decrease the production cost by reducing the input purchases 2. Non Chemical pesticides are most suitable for pest control in KG. 3. Non Chemical pesticides are most suitable to control weed 4. KG vegetable only benefits the consumer not the producer. 5. KGC is very difficult to implement due to difficulties. Practices of Kitchen Gardening Cultivation by Respondents
S.NO SA A N D SD
1. Intercropping or Mixed Cropping Is Easy. 2. Using animal manure as fertilizer is easy. 3. Using Plant waste as fertilizer is easy. 4. Using Kitchen waste as fertilizer is easy. 5. Using other biological pests control is easy. Problems faced by households in Kitchen Gardening Cultivation
S.NO SA A N D SD
1. Lack of Capital and Credit. 2. High cost of Inputs (Eg. Fertilisers, Seeds) 3. Lack of Planting materials and inputs 4. Limited experience in gardening. 5. Limited knowledge of how to use fertiliser. Training needs for respondents in Kitchen Gardening Cultivation
S.NO SA A N D SD
1. Using fertilizers. 2. Selecting and Buying inputs. 3. Planting methods. 4. Harvesting. 5. Control of pests and diseases.