A PROJECT REPORT ON
DESIGN OF DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM AND OPERATION BASED ON SOIL MOISTURE SENSOR
PATEL BHAVIK 150490106064
CHAUDHARI HARSH 150490106016
CHHABHAYA KRUTARTH 140490106015
MISTRY ROHAN 150490106053
CHAUDHARI PURVIL 140490106008
(ASST. PROF IN CIVIL ENGG.)
A project report submitted to Gujarat Technological University Partial
Requirements for the Bachelor of Engineering Degree
SNPIT & RC, UMRAKH
This is to certify that project work entitled “DESIGN OF DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM AND OPERATION BASED ON SOIL MOISTURE SENSOR” was carried out by Patel Bhavik (150490106064),Chaudhari Harsh(150490106016),Chhabhaya Krutarth(140490106015)
Mistry Rohan(150490106053)Chaudhari Purvil(140490106008) at S.N. Patel Institute Of Engineering, Technology & Research Centre, Umrakh for partial fulfillment of BE degree to be awarded by Gujarat Technological University, Ahemdabad. This project work has been carried out under my supervision and is to the satisfaction of department.
Place: Umrakh, Bardoli
Mr. Abhishek Sapre Dr. Keyur Shah
(Asst. Prof.) (HOD Civil Dept.)
First of all, we would like to express our sincere gratitude towards the principal of S. N. Patel Institute of Technology & Research Center, Umrakh who inspires us to work with user defined problems with the new curriculum design by the academic council.
“A man without guidance is like a boat in dry land” and Mr. Abhishek Sapre, is the person who has provided us that invaluable direction, his constant encouragement, expert academic and practical guidance and shared his knowledge which immensely helped us to complete this project preliminary report.
We cannot forget the encouragement given by him which propelled us in the direction of the quest for the topic related to Construction Management. So we take this opportunity to express our sincere thanks to Mr. Abhishek Sapre, without his impetus we may not be persevering on the topic called “Design of Drip Irrigation System and Operation based on Soil Moisture Sensor”.
It would have been never possible to reach this destination without blessings, constant inspiration and moral support of Our Parents and Almighty God. All might have not been mentioned but none is forgotten.
Patel Bhavik 150490106064
Chaudhari Harsh 150490106016
Chhabhaya Krutarth 140490106015
Mistry Rohan 150490106053
Chaudhari Purvil 140490106008
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
List of Figures and table 6
1.2 Problem Statement
1.4 Scope of Study
1.5 Need of study
1.6 Components of drip irrigation system
Chapter:2 Design Methodology
2.1 AEIOU Summary
2.2 Ideation Canvas
2.3 Empathy Canvas
2.4Product Development Canvas
Chapter:3 Literature Review
4.1.1 Irrigation definition
4.1.2 Irrigation engineering
4.2 Method of irrigation
4.3 Drip irrigation
4.3.2 Type of drip irrigation system
4.3.3 Component of drip irrigation system
4.3.4 Advantages of drip irrigation system
4.3.5 Disadvantages of drip irrigation system
4.3.6 Comparison between different irrigation system
Chapter:5 Design of System
5.1 Work Flow Chart
5.2 Detail of the field under project
5.3 Description of field
5.4 Design step of surface drip irrigation system
LIST OF FIGURE
Figure 01: AEIOU Summary Canvas
Figure 02: Ideation Canvas
Figure 03: Empathizing Canvas
Figure 04: Product Development Canvas
Figure 05: Flowchart of various irrigation system
Figure 06: Component part of drip irrigation system
Figure07: layout of drip irrigation system
Figure08: Work Flow Chart
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Comparison between different irrigation system
Table 2: Detail of the field under project
Table 3: Description of field table
Table 4: Comparison result of irrigation system
India is an agriculture country in India arid, semi arid, region, and inadequate rainfall areas when a farmers is not use of water on field so, One solution to this problem is design a drip irrigation system. In this the irrigation system the farmers have to watch on irrigation time table which different crops like banana, chili, sugarcane, rice etc. In the present work based on “design of drip irrigation system and operation based on soil moisture sensor”. Soil moisture sensor based drip irrigation system is developed. In this system no drawbacks, few disadvantages. Overcoming the limitation of the conventional SDI (surface drip irrigation) is going to be prepared in the first stage the field/site visit was arranged and data to be collected for banana crop and inter cropping chili with drip irrigation, furrow irrigation and second stage the analysis of the data and discharge, lateral line, main line, sub main line, dripper is to be calculated by mathematically.
The major problem in different irrigation system the more quality of water was wastage, so selected and design of surface drip irrigation system avoid. The problem in this system irrigation will take place only when there is required water. Supply valve may be automated using sensor and more advantage of this system.
Indian economy is basically depends on an agriculture, in on an agriculture field uses most of fresh water resources. This use of fresh water resource will be continue to increase by increase population growth and increase food productivity demand so, improvement in irrigation system, the surface drip irrigation is use and cost effective for optimizing water resource for agriculture production.
India is mainly an agricultural country and an agriculture is source of live hood of majority Indians. In agriculture field applied of different irrigation system on field, An irrigation system uses most of available fresh water resources. In dry region or where there is inadequate rainfall areas. When a farmers is not properly use of water on field. So drip irrigation is today’s need because future demands on the world’s limited water resources and demands to adequate food production so require the crop productivity and improve the irrigation efficiency.
The farmers have been use the different irrigation method like, sprinkler, furrows, drip irrigation system. A good irrigation (surface drip irrigation system) system can be applied the benefits of increase productivity, increase efficiency, reduce wastage of water, improve the irrigation efficiency, And not require the skilled labours.
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT:
The surface drip irrigation system used to defined and described these problem such as the initial cost of the equipment such as head unit, filter, pipe line, meter etc. is higher, evaporation losses and runoff are reduce, under the drip irrigation system dripper is clogged out, dripper lines are replacement due to change in crop, it is not suitable for closely plant like wheat, broccoli, cabbage, carrots.
The use of the surface drip irrigation system following advantages are as below:
Reduce wastage of water
Increase in yield of crops
Avoid the over irrigation
Cost of the labour is reduce
Maintenance of the system is minimum
Evaporation losses and deep percolation losses are eliminated
System is easily expand for future requirement
No soil erosion problems
1.4 SCOPE OF STUDY:
The data for this study will be collected through questionnaire survey from stakeholders like animal, engineer and farmer.
The research work is limited up to construction industry of south Gujarat region.
Data analysis will be done discharge, lateral line, main line, sub main line, dripper, is to be calculated by mathematically.
1.5 NEED OF STUDY:
The necessity of drip irrigation can be as follow:
Arid and semi-arid region
Increase in the yield of crops
Non uniform rainfall
Insurance against drought
Increasing the efficiency of crops
1.6 COMPONENTS OF DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM:
The various tools are used in these system are as :
Sub main pipe
CHAPTER:2 DESIGN METHODOLOGY
2.1 AEIOU SUMMARY SHEET:
There are 5 types of AEIOU framework
The various processes and works to be done during construction of product. These activities are given.
In this framework, the type of environment or conditions are defined which has high effect on the construction of use of product.
This framework gives the idea of what interactions and conversation is made between two or more peoples or things for the use of the product or the process of the construction.
In this framework, the details of the objects which are used for construction of the product are given.
Upon the persons or this framework gives us information this product, organizations who are directly or indirectly related
Labour – Labour
Owner – Workers
Engineer – Owner
Owner – Owner
This is the summary sheet which includes all activities, environment, interactions, objects and users(stakeholders).
2.2 IDEATION CANVAS:
The ideation canvas includes the user and stakeholders who performs the various activities at their location/situation/context, which helps in achieving the possible solutions using various props/tools/objects/equipment.
2.3 EMPATHY CANVAS:
Basically, there are four sections in Empathy Mapping Canvas.
In this stage, we find the various users which are directly or indirectly related to our project.
Stakeholders are the person or organizing with an interest. In this stage, we find the persons who will directly or indirectly related to users.
Activities are directly or indirectly related to stakeholders.
In story boarding we need to write two HAPPY and two SAD stories based on the project.
2.4 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CANVAS:
This sheet gives the information about products features, functions, experience, purpose and its users.
CHAPTER:3 LITERATURE REVIEW
Title: INFLUANCE OF SURFACE AND SUB SURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION METHED ON YIELDS OF TWO BANANA VARIETIES
Author : HASHMI HN
surface and subsurface drip irrigation, banana crop, arid region, drip
The water use in an agriculture production in region of small rainfall under this condition surface and sub surface drip irrigation system may play important role in overcoming the inadequacy of water and vegetable crops production is economic in this the water shortage area. The green house study was designed for banana crop varieties under surface and sub surface drip irrigation design the aim of the study was to produce good production and know the performance of two irrigation system with respect of water use efficiency, water to yield ratio, crop yield and testing of two irrigation system. Under two irrigation system result of water use efficiency in subsurface drip irrigation system better then the surface drip irrigation.
Drip irrigation system for vegetable crop has been mostly used for improving water efficiency and crop yield. That sub surface drip irrigation system is better then the surface drip irrigation system.
Increase yield and yield to water ratio was find out, subsurface drip irrigation method is best choice for vegetable crop, drip irrigation was more compared as with surface irrigation system.
Title : MAXIMIZING WATER PRODUCTIVITY AND YIELDS OF CROPS ON DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM
Author: SANJAY SINGH CHOUHAN
Keywords: Drip irrigation, water productivity, sprinkler irrigation
Maximizing water productivity is most of important in developing countries like India, so the aim of the study was estimate the crop yield response to the drip irrigation system and attributed the water use efficiency water saving under soil condition, To study the effect of drip irrigation and sprinkler irrigation system, effect of drip irrigation on water productivity and yield in crop result that water saving 9.7% higher in drip irrigation compared with sprinkler irrigation system. Assume the crop yield 1000 grain wt. in drip irrigation grain yield was 12.14% and wt. 17.86% better than the sprinkler irrigated crop and water productivity of drip irrigation was 21.76% more than the sprinkler irrigation system, so drip irrigation system has an effective way for field crop.
Observe data and analysis of drip irrigation and sprinkler irrigation system, may be an effective technique for irrigation water, water productivity, increase in yield crop under drought condition.
Using drip irrigation in crop is save 8.57% water and increase in yield 12.14% by sprinkler irrigation system.
Drip irrigation can be applied effective for irrigating intensive field crop, So drip irrigation is better than the sprinkler irrigation system.
Title: DESIGN OF DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM USING MICROTUBES
Authors: MUHAMMED ALI BHUIYAN
Keywords: Drip irrigation, Micro tube, lateral, emission uniformity
Development of drip irrigation in major problems are clogging and emission non uniformity. So, this problem obtain the best emission uniformity, pressure regulator, emitters use for long time, Pressure compensating emitters can be more costly and complex then the non compensating emitters. Microtubes is small polyethylene tubes can be provide less clogging and passage, This microtubes are utilize with varying length equal discharge is deliver to field. In this head losses and slopes are consider and two (12 and 16 mm) microtube and lateral diameter sizes chosen; calculation of numbers of microtubes and lengths by using mathematically or new methodology.
The drip irrigation system in using microtubes as emitter with laterals, where emission uniformity would be 100%.
the length of different microtubes, numbers of tubes, discharge, lateral sizes to be calculated by equation for mathematical, and can make design of uniform distribution of water.
clogging and emission non uniformity problems was eliminated.
Title: SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION (SDI) SYSTEM REDEATION A CASE STUDY
Authors: DANNY H. ROGERS
Keywords: Subsurface drip irrigation, SDI, emitter clogging
This paper review minimum design suggestions and a case study of drip irrigation system efforts on field. Subsurface drip irrigation was developed on less than 1 percent of the irrigated on field crops, this system indicated long dripper line life is possible, in this the major problem have clogging, so clogging problem was done the micro/drip irrigation system failure.
Case study of subsurface drip irrigation system defined the proper design and management is required to prevent SDI failure
Subsurface drip irrigation system can be feasible and capable of working successfully irrigation system
SDI system can be clogged recovery is possible but it is expensive and more time consuming.
Title : A SIMPLE DESIGN SOFTWARE FOR DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM
Authors: ANURADHA BEHERA
Keywords: Drip irrigation, design, water, software
Water is a main need for living. It is important part of food production in irrigation. Production is increase by increase of population require the more quantity of water but water is the natural gift, So micro irrigation is mostly efficient irrigation method require at present. This system deals with drip and sprinkler method, The drip irrigation is the latest method it is best in water scarcity area and small quantity of water directly applied to the field. It is depends on factors like land, soil, crop, climate etc. But this system in major problem how to design of drip irrigation system by farmer. This solved the problem was carried out development of simple software for drip irrigation system.
This software is not accept any wrong information it is simple to design for drip irrigation system by use of software.
Software is determine numbers of lateral line, dripper, sub main line, length of lateral line, main line and discharge to be calculated.
Estimation of the material requirement and the cost of installation the software may be used for all types of crops and friendly tool engineer and farmer.
Title: Water use efficiency of surface drip irrigation versus an alternative subsurface drip irrigation method
Author: J. Martinez
Key word: Irrigation, Irrigation system, Irrigation water, Drip irrigation
In an arid and semi arid region where water is not easily available in the irrigation water use efficiency is an important issue. So subsurface drip irrigation is very important irrigation method in this limited expansion due to disadvantages as the clogging of drippers and difficulty of leakages and repairing, and alternative subsurface irrigation method is avoid most of the drawbacks. The aim of this work is compare the subsurface drip and surface drip irrigation system to achieve the objective a field experiment carried out organic olive orchard. The water use efficiency in both irrigation method was find out under the different irrigation water distribution system. The result of subsurface irrigation method better then the drip irrigation, because crop yield and water efficiency higher than the surface drip irrigation system
This system is use so the increase in yields, improved efficiency and water saving in SDI method due to absence of evaporation losses and reduce runoff.
This method has many advantages and easy to install. Water saving in area where water is not easily available in area.
This experiment observed that the olive and oil yields where always higher in subsurface drip irrigation system than the surface drip irrigation system and saving water 20%.
CHAPTER :4 METHODOLOGY
4.1.1 IRRIGATION DEFINATION:
Irrigation is a define as to the process of artificially applying water to the soil for various crops.
4.1.2 IRRIGATION ENGINEERING:
Irrigation engineering is the science deal with operation and maintenance, planning, construction, designing of different irrigation works.
It includes ,
Construction of head works
Weir and barrage are constructed
Canal systems is construction
Construction of hydroelectric power
Reservoir and dams are created
4.2 METOD OF IRRIGATION:
The following the methods of irrigation are as below:
Surface irrigation methods
subsurface irrigation methods
Sprinkler irrigation method
Drip irrigation method
Flow chart of various irrigation method
4.3 Drip Irrigation:
Drip irrigation is one of the modern development method of irrigation it is becoming increase in popular in areas with water scarcity and salt problems.
It is also know as a trickle irrigation system.
Drip irrigation method was introduced in Israel. In India being increasing in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Kerala, and Karnataka.
In drip irrigation, water is applied in the form of drops directly near the roots of the plants through a special outlet device called an emitter. these emitters have drip nozzles to supply water very slow rate, these rate from about 2-10 litres per hours. The water applied is just sufficient to keep the soil moisture within the desirable range for the plant growths.
4.3.2 Types of drip irrigation system
Surface drip irrigation system:
The water on ground that seeps down to the plant roots is known the surface drip irrigation system.
Subsurface drip irrigation system:
The water under the surface of the ground that is already at the plant roots is known as a subsurface drip irrigation system.
4.3.3 Components of drip irrigation system:
Sub main pipe
Advantages of drip irrigation :
Water requirement is less.
Evaporation losses are quite low.
Water logging is avoided.
The drip irrigation is quite suitable for small trees and widely spaced plants.
It is most suitable for irrigation of fruit plants.
Weed growth is minimized.
The method is quite suitable for where the water is limited.
Soil erosion is minimized.
Labour cost is less than other irrigation methods.
Reduce the risk of disease.
Disadvantages of drip irrigation :
Initial cost of various components is very high.
Due to change in the crops may result in frequent replacement of trickle lines.
This method is not suitable for closely planted crops.
The sun can affect the tubes use for drip irrigation, shortening their usable life.
If the water is not properly filtered and the equipment not properly maintained, it can result in clogging.
Drip tape causes extra cleanup after harvest.
Comparison between different irrigation system:
Surface irrigation Sprinkler irrigation Drip irrigation
Highest water requirement
Low water requirement 65% of that required in surface irrigation Least water requirement 20 to 30% of the required in surface irrigation
Problem of soil erosion Soil erosion is controlled soil No soil erosion
Suitable for all types of soils expect very light soils Suitable for all types of soils, including highly permeable soils Suitable for all types of soils, including less permeable soils
Land is lost under canal section and field channels Maximum use of land Maximum use of land as no need of field channels etc.
Requires preparation of land No land levelling is required No land levelling is required
Initial charges are negligible but labour charges are high High initial cost and operating charges Low initial cost and operating(labour) charges
All the surface soil of saturated Entire surface area is wetted Least surface area near root of the plant are wetted
Wasteful use of water Water is used effectively compare to surface irrigation No wastage of water as water is directly supplied to root zone
High percolation losses and leaching down of fertilizers Localized application of fertilizer is absent Minimum percolation loss, Reduce leaching down fertilizer
Less effective in water distribution efficiency 65 to 70% effective in water distribution efficiency 90% effective in water distribution efficiency
Wild weed and pest growth
Weed and pest growth and diseases are less Weed, pest and insect troubles are least
CHAPTER:5 DESIGN OF SYSTEM
5.1 WORK FLOW CHART:
SITE SELECTION & VISIT
DESIGNING OF SYSTEM
5.2 DETAIL OF THE FIELD UNDER PROJECT:
Survey number 18
Area under irrigation 1.99 ha (19900 m2 )
Crop Banana + chilli
5.3 DESCPTION OF FIELD:
We visited the Rajubhai’s farm in Bardoli, collected the detail of surface drip irrigation system and we understood the whole system, we observed that in the farm the irrigation canal is not available so, farmer used private boring system and fulfils the requirement and the drip irrigation system is good workable.
NAME OF FARMER RAJUBHAI N. PATEL
Village: Utara Taluka Bardoli
Dist.: Surat GGRC NO: –
Crop spacing 6ft *6ft Crop : Banana
Water source : Bore well Area : 19900 m2.
Water suitable for crop Banana + chilli Intercrop : Chilli
5.4 DESIGN STEP OF SURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM
Steps of Designing
1. Layout of drip system
2. Irrigation water requirement
3. Capacity of drip system
4. Length of main line
5. Length of sub main line
6. Length of lateral line
7. Numbers of lateral and drippers
8. Capacity of main pipe
9. Capacity of sub main pipe
10. Capacity of lateral pipe
11. Diameter of lateral pipe
12.Diameter of main pipe
13. Diameter of sub main pipe
14. Total cost of drip system
1. Layout of drip system:
Irrigation water requirement :
The monthly irrigation water requirement can be determined on the basis of monthly pan evaporation data and crop co efficient by the using following the equation.
Vm = monthly irrigation water required
Kc = Crop co efficient
For banana crop (1.1 to 1.4 range)
For chilli crop (0.7 to 0.9 range)
Cc = canopy factor (=1)
Ep = normal monthly pan evaporation in mm (20 mm/ day)
A = area to be irrigated m2 (19900 m2)
Vm = 1.4*0.8*1*20*19900
Vm = 0.9*0.8*1*20*19900
Capacity of drip system:
Equation to estimate capacity of drip system
Q = A*Tna*tWhere,
Q = capacity of drip system, lph
A = cultivated area
T = irrigation interval, days (3 days)
na = water application efficiency (80%)
t = duration of each irrigation (2 hours)
Q = 19900*30.80*2 = 37312.5 lph
Assume, total numbers of plant = 24000
Drip capacity by numbers of plant (Qp)
Qp = Q/n
= 1.55 lph
Length of sub main line:
l1= 102 m
l2= 85 m
Length of lateral line:
l1= 117 m
l2= 85 m
l3= 75 m
Numbers of lateral and drippers:
NL= Ls /S
NL= numbers of lateral
Ls = length of sub main line (l1,l2,l3)
S = spacing between two rows of lateral (6 feet or 1.828 m)
NL= 102/1.828 =55.79 = 56 nos.
NL= 85/1.828 = 46.49 = 47 nos.
NL= 101/1.828 = 55.25 =56 nos.
Total nos. of lateral (NL) = 56 + 47 + 56 =159 nos.
Numbers of plants per lateral are calculated by following equation
NPL = LL/Ps
NPL = numbers of plants per lateral
LL = length of lateral pipe (l1,l2,l3)
Ps = spacing between two plants (6 feet or 1.828 m)
NPL = 117/1.828 = 64 nos.
NPL = 85/1.828 = 46.49 = 47nos.
NPL= 75/1.828 = 41 nos.
Total nos. of plant per lateral (NPL) = 64 + 47 + 41 = 152 nos.
Numbers of dripper per plant are calculated by following equation
Qp = Q/(NL*NPL)
NDP = Qp/q
Qp = discharge require per plant, lph
Q = drip capacity, lph (37312.5 lph)
NL = total nos. of lateral
NPL= total nos. of plant per lateral
NDP = numbers of dripper per plants
q = dripper discharge (2 lph)
Qp = 37312.5/(159*152) = 1.54 lph
NDP = 1.54/2 = 0.771 = 1 nos.
Total numbers of drippers are calculated following equation:
NDL= NDP* NPL ND = NDL* NL NP = NPL* NLWhere,
NDL= Number of drippers per lateral
ND= Total number of drippers
NP= Total numbers of plants
NL= Total number of laterals
NPL=Number of plants per lateral
NDP= Number of Drippers per plant
NDL = 1*152 = 152 nos.
ND= 152*159=24168 nos.
NP =159*152 =24168 nos.
To provide two dripper at each plants =2*24168 = 48336nos.
Total nos. of dripper (ND) = 24168 nos. ……………..(1)
Total nos. of plants (NP) =24168 nos……………..(2)
By (1) and (2) are same HENCE, OK
Capacity of sub main pipe, lateral, main pipe
Capacity of each lateral pipe can be determine by multiplying the dripper discharge to numbers of dripper per lateral.
Capacity of lateral = 2* NDP = 2*1 = 2 lph
Capacity of sub main pipe can be determine by multiplying lateral capacity to numbers of lateral .
Capacity of sub main pipe = 2*159 = 318 lph
Capacity of main pipe is determine by multiplying sub main discharge to numbers of sub main .
Capacity of main pipe = 318 * 3 = 954 lph
Diameter of lateral pipe, sub main, main pipe :
Diameter of main pipe is 80mm to 90mm
Pressure 4 to 6 Kg/cm2 Sub main pipe
Diameter of main pipe is 50mm to 90mm
Pressure 2.5 to 4 Kg/cm2Lateral pipe
Diameter of main pipe is 16mm to 20mm (2 lph)
Pressure 0.4 to 0.8 Kg/cm210.Total cost of drip system
Total cost of the drip irrigation can be estimated by the sum of the different component , equipment and depends on land in the farm , our applying the system in area .
Equipment cost =25000 Rs.
Overall cost of the system =300000 Rs.
COMPARESION OF IRRIGATION SYSTEM
SR. NO. PARAMETER FURROW DRIP
1 Area under crop 19900 m219900 m22 Land preparation require No require
3 Banana yield in quintal 850 1000
4 Chilli yield in quintal 330 620
5 Benefit Less compare to drip More compare to furrow
FOLLOWING THE CONCLUSION ARE AS :
Increase productivity of crop
Increase efficiency and increase yield in crop
Saving the time and saving fertilizer
Erosion of soil is eliminated
No preparation of land filling and cutting
Control the growth system
Reduce the evaporation and runoff
Operating cost of equipment is economic as possible
Reduce the wastage of water
Irrigation system control
Over irrigation is eliminated
Reduce the growth of weeding
Drip irrigation system operation based on soil moisture sensor.
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