-123825635Ethiopian Civil Service University
College of Urban Development and Engineering
Department of Urban Housing, Real estate and Property Valuation Development and Management
An assessment of the Provision of Physical Infrastructure in Kuy Town, special reference to Cooperative Housing sites, in Amhara National Regional State.
By: Awoke Wondifraw
ID No: Ecsu- 1601432
Advisor: Henok Adamu
A Thesis Submitted to College of Urban Development and Engineering of the Ethiopian Civil Service University in partial Fulfillment of the requirements for the award of a Master’s Degree in Urban Housing Development and Management.
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Statement of DeclarationI Awoke Wondifraw, ID Number ECSU-1601432 do hereby declare that this Thesis is my original work and that it has not been submitted partially, or in full, by any other person for an award of a degree in any other university/ institution.
Awoke wondifraw Demessie ___________________ ___________________
Name of candidate Signature Date
This thesis has been submitted for final examination with my approval as an advisor.
Henock Adamu __________________ ____________________
Name of advisor Signature Date
ApprovalWe, the undersigned certify that have read and hereby recommended to the Ethiopian civil Service College to accept the Thesis submitted by Awoke wondifraw Demessie, and entitled ” Assessment of physical infrastructure provision :The case of Kuy town cooperative housing sites”, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of a Masters Degree in Urban Housing Development and Management.
Name: Henock Adamu Signature _____________ Date ____________
Name: Signature _____________ Date _____________
Name: Signature _____________ Date _____________
Head of Department:
Name: Signature _____________ Date ____________
AcknowledgementFirst glory and praise to God for giving me strength and patience until I completing this research.
Next to God, I would like to express my gratitude to my research advisor Mr. Henock Adamu, for his valuable comments and efforts to correct my research.
My especial thanks go to my families my father Wondifraw Demessie and my mother Alemitu Mullu, for providing me with every support and encouragement in all my life.
Finally, yet, importantly, it is a great pleasure for me to acknowledge the assistances provided to me and the contribution made by different individuals during the preparation of this research. Thus, my special thanks go to my instructors, instructor Belet Ejegu and Demeke Hailie for their support with ideas and materials. I would like to extend my gratitude to all my friends for their cooperation and moral support during my research. Besides, I would like to say heartily thanks to the staff of Kuy town municipality, water development office and Kuy town administrator for their effort and cooperation in providing relevant data for this research.
Table of contentsContent Page
TOC o “1-3” h z u Statement of Declaration PAGEREF _Toc515188730 h iApproval PAGEREF _Toc515188731 h iiAcknowledgement PAGEREF _Toc515188732 h iiiTable of contents PAGEREF _Toc515188733 h ivList of Tables PAGEREF _Toc515188734 h viiList of figures PAGEREF _Toc515188735 h viiiList of Acronyms PAGEREF _Toc515188736 h ixAbstract PAGEREF _Toc515188737 h xCHAPTER ONE PAGEREF _Toc515188738 h 11INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc515188739 h 11.1Background of the study PAGEREF _Toc515188740 h 11.2Statement of the problem PAGEREF _Toc515188741 h 21.3Research objectives PAGEREF _Toc515188742 h 41.3.1General objective PAGEREF _Toc515188743 h 41.3.2Specific objectives PAGEREF _Toc515188744 h 41.4Research questions PAGEREF _Toc515188745 h 41.5Conceptual definitions PAGEREF _Toc515188746 h 51.6Significance of the study PAGEREF _Toc515188747 h 51.7Scope of the study PAGEREF _Toc515188748 h 51.8Description of the study area PAGEREF _Toc515188749 h 61.9Organization of the Thesis PAGEREF _Toc515188750 h 7CHAPTER TWO PAGEREF _Toc515188751 h 82REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE PAGEREF _Toc515188752 h 82.1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc515188753 h 82.2The concept of housing and Definition of housing PAGEREF _Toc515188754 h 82.2.1The concept of housing PAGEREF _Toc515188755 h 82.2.2Definition of cooperative housing PAGEREF _Toc515188756 h 92.3Infrastructure PAGEREF _Toc515188757 h 92.4Classification and Components of infrastructure PAGEREF _Toc515188758 h 112.4.1Economic infrastructure PAGEREF _Toc515188759 h 112.4.2Social infrastructure PAGEREF _Toc515188760 h 112.5Infrastructure provision PAGEREF _Toc515188761 h 112.6Organization set up for the provision of infrastructure PAGEREF _Toc515188762 h 122.6.1The role of central government in infrastructure provision PAGEREF _Toc515188763 h 132.6.2The role of local government in infrastructure provision PAGEREF _Toc515188764 h 132.7Physical infrastructure provision in housing PAGEREF _Toc515188765 h 142.7.1Water supply PAGEREF _Toc515188766 h 142.7.2Electric power supply PAGEREF _Toc515188767 h 162.7.3Road PAGEREF _Toc515188768 h 162.7.4Sanitation PAGEREF _Toc515188769 h 172.7.5Solid waste disposal PAGEREF _Toc515188770 h 182.7.6Drainage system PAGEREF _Toc515188771 h 192.7.7Telecommunication PAGEREF _Toc515188772 h 192.8Factors that hinder adequate infrastructure provision PAGEREF _Toc515188773 h 192.8.1Lack of finance PAGEREF _Toc515188774 h 202.8.2Poor- government participation PAGEREF _Toc515188775 h 202.8.3Lack of coordination PAGEREF _Toc515188776 h 202.8.4Corruption PAGEREF _Toc515188777 h 212.8.5Population exploitation PAGEREF _Toc515188778 h 212.9Approaches to enhance the provision of infrastructure PAGEREF _Toc515188779 h 212.9.1Planning and Budgeting PAGEREF _Toc515188780 h 212.9.2Creating participatory management approach PAGEREF _Toc515188781 h 222.9.3Coordination PAGEREF _Toc515188782 h 222.10Conceptual framework PAGEREF _Toc515188783 h 222.11Empirical literature PAGEREF _Toc515188784 h 242.11.1Infrastructure provision in Ethiopia PAGEREF _Toc515188785 h 242.11.2Experience from Orangi pilot project in Karachi, Pakistan PAGEREF _Toc515188786 h 252.11.3Experience from Zambia infrastructure provision PAGEREF _Toc515188787 h 262.11.4Experience from South Africa infrastructure provision PAGEREF _Toc515188788 h 272.12Lesson learnt PAGEREF _Toc515188789 h 282.13Literature gap PAGEREF _Toc515188790 h 29CHAPTER THREE PAGEREF _Toc515188791 h 313RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc515188792 h 313.1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc515188793 h 313.2Research design PAGEREF _Toc515188794 h 313.3Research strategy PAGEREF _Toc515188795 h 313.4Research approach PAGEREF _Toc515188796 h 323.5Method of data collection PAGEREF _Toc515188797 h 323.6Questionnaire PAGEREF _Toc515188798 h 323.6.1Interview PAGEREF _Toc515188799 h 333.6.2Filed observation PAGEREF _Toc515188800 h 333.7Sampling technique PAGEREF _Toc515188801 h 333.7.1Population PAGEREF _Toc515188802 h 343.7.2Sampling frame PAGEREF _Toc515188803 h 343.7.3Sampling unit PAGEREF _Toc515188804 h 343.7.4Sample size PAGEREF _Toc515188805 h 353.8Source of data PAGEREF _Toc515188806 h 373.8.1Primary data source PAGEREF _Toc515188807 h 373.8.2Secondary data source PAGEREF _Toc515188808 h 383.9 Data analysis and Interpretation PAGEREF _Toc515188809 h 383.10 Data presentation PAGEREF _Toc515188810 h 393.11 Data validity and Reliability PAGEREF _Toc515188811 h 393.12 Oprationalization Framework PAGEREF _Toc515188812 h 403.13 Limitation of the study PAGEREF _Toc515188813 h 413.14Ethical consideration PAGEREF _Toc515188814 h 41CHAPTER FOUR PAGEREF _Toc515188815 h 424 Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation PAGEREF _Toc515188816 h 424.1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc515188817 h 424.2Response rate PAGEREF _Toc515188818 h 424.3Back ground information of Respondents PAGEREF _Toc515188819 h 424.3.1Distribution of respondents by sex PAGEREF _Toc515188820 h 424.3.2Age of respondents PAGEREF _Toc515188821 h 434.3.3Marital status and Family size PAGEREF _Toc515188822 h 434.3.4Educational status PAGEREF _Toc515188823 h 444.3.5Employment status PAGEREF _Toc515188824 h 444.3.6Monthly income of sample respondents PAGEREF _Toc515188825 h 454.4Results and Discussions PAGEREF _Toc515188826 h 454.4.1Water supply, electricity supply and road infrastructures PAGEREF _Toc515188827 h 454.4.2Dwellers satisfaction with existing water, electricity and road infrastructure PAGEREF _Toc515188828 h 634.4.3Factors that hinder adequate provisions of physical infrastructure PAGEREF _Toc515188829 h 66CHAPTER FIVE PAGEREF _Toc515188830 h 725 Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc515188831 h 725.1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc515188832 h 725.2Major findings PAGEREF _Toc515188833 h 725.2.1Summary of the main findings regarding – RQ 1 PAGEREF _Toc515188834 h 725.2.2Summary of the main findings regarding – RQ 2 PAGEREF _Toc515188835 h 735.2.3Summary of the main findings regarding – RQ 3 PAGEREF _Toc515188836 h 745.3Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc515188837 h 745.4Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc515188838 h 765.4.1Organizational measures PAGEREF _Toc515188839 h 765.4.2Social measures PAGEREF _Toc515188840 h 775.4.3Technical measures PAGEREF _Toc515188841 h 775.4.4Financial measures PAGEREF _Toc515188842 h 785.4.5Recommendation for further research PAGEREF _Toc515188843 h 78REFERENCE PAGEREF _Toc515188844 h 79Annexes PAGEREF _Toc515188845 h 84Annex 1 PAGEREF _Toc515188846 h 84Annex 2 PAGEREF _Toc515188847 h 88
List of TablesTable Page
TOC h z c “Table 3.” Table 3. 1: Distribution of sample respondents in the three site of the study area PAGEREF _Toc515146345 h 50Table 3. 2 : Distribution of sample key informants PAGEREF _Toc515146346 h 50Table 3. 3: Oprationalization framework PAGEREF _Toc515146347 h 53 TOC h z c “Table 4.” Table 4. 1: Response Rate……………………………………………………………………………………………….. PAGEREF _Toc515143647 h 52Table 4. 2 : Distribution of respondents by age category PAGEREF _Toc515143648 h 53Table 4. 3: Distributions of respondents by marital status and family size PAGEREF _Toc515143649 h 54Table 4. 4: Distribution of respondents by educational status PAGEREF _Toc515143650 h 54Table 4. 5: Distribution of sample respondents by monthly income PAGEREF _Toc515143651 h 55Table 4. 6: Households source of water across the three cooperative housing sites PAGEREF _Toc515143652 h 58Table 4. 7: Average water consumption level of the respondents PAGEREF _Toc515143653 h 59Table 4. 8: Monthly payments for water service by respondents from different sources PAGEREF _Toc515143654 h 60Table 4. 9: Households perception about the quality of water PAGEREF _Toc515143655 h 63Table 4. 10: Availability of Electricity PAGEREF _Toc515143656 h 64Table 4. 11: The purpose of electricity for the sample respondents PAGEREF _Toc515143657 h 66Table 4. 12: Monthly payments for electricity service by respondents from shared source PAGEREF _Toc515143658 h 67Table 4. 13: Cause of electricity supply interruption PAGEREF _Toc515143659 h 69Table 4. 14: Respondents source of light that do not have access to electricity PAGEREF _Toc515143660 h 70Table 4. 15: Respondent’s perception on the sate of access road PAGEREF _Toc515143661 h 72Table 4. 16: Respondent’s reason for poor and very poor state of access road PAGEREF _Toc515143662 h 73Table 4. 17: Distance from the main road and types of access road PAGEREF _Toc515143663 h 74Table 4. 18: Respondents satisfaction with water supply PAGEREF _Toc515143664 h 75Table 4. 19: Respondents satisfaction with electricity supply PAGEREF _Toc515143665 h 75Table 4. 20: Respondents satisfaction with road infrastructure PAGEREF _Toc515143666 h 76Table 4. 21: Overall satisfactions with water, electricity and road infrastructure PAGEREF _Toc515143667 h 77Table 4. 22: Test of Homogeneity of variance PAGEREF _Toc515143668 h 77List of figures Figure Page
TOC h z c “Figure 2.” Figure 2. 1 Conceptual framework PAGEREF _Toc515144237 h 33 TOC h z c “Figure 4.” Figure 4. 1: Distribution of respondents by sex………………………………………………………………… PAGEREF _Toc515143964 h 53Figure 4. 2: Distribution of households by employment status PAGEREF _Toc515143965 h 55Figure 4. 3: Households source of water PAGEREF _Toc515143966 h 57Figure 4. 4: Frequency of water supply interruptions PAGEREF _Toc515143967 h 61Figure 4. 5: Responses of concerned officials when water pipelines were physically damage PAGEREF _Toc515143968 h 63Figure 4. 6: Electricity power interruption per week PAGEREF _Toc515143969 h 68Figure 4. 7: The situation of shared meter electric lines in cooperative housing sites PAGEREF _Toc515143970 h 70Figure 4. 8: Types of road that accessed by the sample respondents PAGEREF _Toc515143971 h 71Figure 4. 9: Earth roads in poor condition PAGEREF _Toc515143972 h 72
List of Acronyms
AACG Addis Ababa City Government
CSA Central Statistical Agency
GTP Growth and Transformation Plan
ICA International Cooperation Alliance
MoFEDMinistry of Finance and economic development
NGO Non – Governmental Organization
OPP-RTI Orangi Pilot Project Research and Training Institute
SPSS Statistical Package for Social Science
UN United Nation
UNCHS United Nation Commission of Human Settlement
WHO World Health Organization
AbstractThe purpose of the study was to assess the provision of physical infrastructure in Kuy town cooperative housing sites. That means, the study was intended to identify the status of basic physical infrastructure particularly water, electricity and road infrastructure in cooperative housing sites of the study area, assess the satisfaction of dwellers with this infrastructures and to explore the factors that hinder adequate provision of physical infrastructure. In order to achieve the objectives as required, the researcher used mixing qualitative and quantitative methods and used primary and secondary data sources. The primary data were collected via sample survey, interview and personal observation. One hundred thirty one household heads were selected by stratified simple random sampling technique and four concerned offices were selected by purposive sampling technique. Secondary data were obtained from reviewing different documents. The collected data were both quantitative and qualitative. When the data was analyzed, the both qualitative and quantitative data analysis methods were used. Beside, narrative analysis, descriptive and inferential statics were used to analysis both qualitative and quantitative data. This was done by frequency, percentage and mean; inferential statistics specifically used test to proportion (Z-test).The study found that there is a limitation of water and road infrastructure provision, and there is no formal electricity supply in Kuy town cooperative housing sites. The result of the study also reviles that this limitation of occurred due to financial problem, lack of coordination, absence of installation equipments and cumbersome and time taking working procedures (bureaucratic bottlenecks). The study result also shows that, due to the limitation of in the provision of basic infrastructure the vast majority of dwellers were dissatisfied with the existing water, electricity and road infrastructure in the area. However, to improve the provision of this infrastructure and the satisfaction of residents with this infrastructure the effort of local government has not been enough to cover all infrastructures in the area. Thus, to overcome the problems of this infrastructure, there should be urgent need for planning an action to improve water supply and road infrastructure, and to make formal electricity installations in the area. Such as creating coordination, constructing additional water sources, upgrading the existing road with the locally available material and providing alternative source of power like solar energy in a cost, which is affordable to the residents until formal electric power installation is implemented.
Key words: Kuy, Infrastructure provision, Physical, Infrastructures, cooperative, housing
CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTIONBackground of the studyHousing has been viewed as the way of delivering a large number of residential buildings on a permanent basis, with sufficient physical infrastructure and social amenities, in a planned, decent, and safe neighborhood (Bala and Bustani, 2009) as cited by Tomori, (2014). However, the rapid rate of urbanization coupled with the poor economic condition has made it impossible to provide houses for the rising urban population (Ethiopia, 2011). To address this problem there have been different housing development approaches among these approaches, cooperative housing is a key element of the global housing development strategy (Lbem and Aduwo, 2012). Cooperative housing is a type of housing scheme that exists primarily to provide housing and related service to its members to live in through a cooperative corporation (Chicago Mutual Housing, 2004).
Nowadays, Cooperative housing has been playing a significant role in the delivery and provision of housing. It encompasses any or all of the following the construction of housing, management of the housing facility, security of land ownership and provision of infrastructure such as roads, transportation, water supply and open space (Durodola, Opoko and Akunnaya, 2016). Even if cooperative housing encompasses the above element, lack of infrastructure or inadequate provision of infrastructure as well as poor maintenance of the existing infrastructure constitute the critical challenges confronting cooperative housing provision scheme (Ibid).
Infrastructure is the aggregate of basic services such as road, communication, electric power, water supply, and drainage system without which primary, secondary and tertiary productive activity cannot function (Srinivasu and Srinivasa, 2013). Infrastructure played a major role in the social and economic development of any community. As a result, the provision and supply of infrastructure and service need to be central to all housing areas. Without them, shelters are inhabitable (UN-Habitat, 2005).
Housing infrastructure provision refers to bringing into existence of basic amenities and service, which must be in place for particular activities. Adequate provisions of infrastructure facilities regarded as critical components and facilitator for economic development and a key to improve the quality of life in any community irrespective of size. An ideal urban neighborhood should be provided with good roads, electricity and portable water supply, drainage network, good waste management and security (Opeyemi, Samson, Gbenga, and Olanrewaju, 2014). The wellbeing of an individual in any community whether it is new or the existing depends on the availability of basic infrastructure to support housing (Abubakar, Owoicho, and Badiru, 2015). However, without proper infrastructure provision, housing cannot be sustainable. A satisfactory home is one in a suitable living environment with potable water, adequate shelter and other service and facilities whether it is cooperative housing or not (Abdulaziz, et.al, 2015). Now day’s 600 million urban dwellers in developing countries (Africa, Asia, and Latin America) live in housing that is overcrowded, poor quality and inadequate provision of infrastructure (Housing and infrastructure, 2015/16).
In Ethiopia, despite the progress over the last two decades in infrastructure and service across all urban areas, there is still a problem in the provision of infrastructures like sanitation, drainage, solid waste management, road, and water supply, and it becomes inadequate (World Bank Group, 2015). But to reduce these infrastructural problem basic urban infrastructure such as water supply, street networking, telecommunication and electric light are the prioritized policy directions under urban infrastructure provision and the mandate of integrated urban infrastructure provision is given for urban local government or city administrations (Yirsaw,2012 ; World Bank Group,2015). Even if the local government is responsible for the provision of basic infrastructure, until know there is a problem of physical infrastructure in Kuy town, Amhara Regional state, especially in newly developed cooperative housing sites. Statement of the problemAs urban areas in developing countries continue to witness rapidly growing population, there are a sign that despite the vital role infrastructure place in physical and socio-economic development of individuals and communities efforts made in addressing the situation and the problem is escalating (Ibem, 2009). Insufficient infrastructure is one of the major problems facing the housing development (Durdob, Oloke, and Akunnaya, 2016)
Many urban areas of Africa faced a problem of basic infrastructure necessary for housing; this is may be due to insufficient finance and capacity to deliver, coupled with greater responsibilities and mandates of municipalities and the increasing demand for rapid urbanization (Owoicho, 2015). It estimated that only 60% of African population access improved water supply, 24% access to electricity and only one -third of the road network in Africa urban area is paved (UN- Habitat, 2011).
Ethiopia is one of a few African countries where a supply of basic infrastructure and service in housing is continually lagging behind the population growth rate. Ethiopian urban centers are characterized by among others, shortage of basic infrastructure and services in housing (Ministry of Works and urban Development, 2006). However, to enhance the development and quality of this basic infrastructure for housing, the government of Ethiopia incorporates the issue of infrastructure as pillar strategies in Growth and Transformation plan (MoFED, 2010). Hence, the coverage of basic infrastructure such as access to improved water and electricity in the year, 2016 in urban area of Ethiopia was 97% and 93% respectively (CSA and ICF, 2016). Even if there is an improvement in the provision of basic infrastructure in housing in urban areas of Ethiopia, still there is a problem of basic infrastructure provision in small towns (Adank, et.al, 2016).
Kuy town is one of the small towns in Ethiopia, Amhara regional state, where the provision of physical infrastructure (water, electricity, and road) in cooperative housing scheme is not adequate. According to Kuy town, annual report (2017), there are a number of cooperative housing sites with inadequate provision of physical infrastructure for more than 3 years in the town and the residents of cooperative housing scheme complaining about the problem of access road, electricity and water supply. This is may be due to lack of finance, lack of coordination, corruption, and increasing demand for rapid urbanization. This inadequate provision water, electricity and road create a direct impact on the social, economic and environmental conditions of the dwellers. Due to the problem of these infrastructures, a number of households are exposed for additional financial expenditure for seeking these infrastructures and they face the problem of mobility during the summer season because of poor road infrastructure provision in the area. In addition to this, lack of electricity supply creates a huge problem in day-to-day activity of the residents. Furthermore, In adequate provision of basic infrastructures(such as water, electricity and road) in housing can lead to exposition of urban populations to health risks, limiting productivity through service cuts, and increase in household and investor costs through property damage (Wubante,2012).
Different studies were conducted in relation to infrastructure provision such as Yirsaw, (2012) and Aziz, (2015) about infrastructure and utility provision. The former author wrote about urban utility infrastructure provision in relation to planning aspect of infrastructure, whereas the later author wrote about the accessibility of urban households in a selected public service such as water, electricity, health and education, and transport. Besides, in relation to cooperative housing a lot of research were took place such as Dawod (2012) studied the potentials and limitations of self-help cooperative housing as housing delivery. Bekele,(2003) studied impediments to cooperative housing to assess the extents of housing cooperative and the factor that hinder the performance of cooperative housing. However, the previous researches did not study comprehensively about the issue of physical infrastructure provision. Moreover, no one researcher did any comprehensive research on the provision of physical infrastructure at Kuy town, Amhara regional state, cooperative housing sites.
Thus, this research is design to fill the gap by assessing the provision of physical infrastructures in cooperative housing sites of Kuy town, Amhara Regional State.
Research objectivesGeneral objectiveThe general objective of this study is to assess the provision of physical infrastructure in Kuy town especial reference to cooperative housing site, Amhara regional state.
Specific objectives The specific objectives of the study could be to:
Identify the status of existing physical infrastructures in the study area.
Assess dwellers satisfaction with the existing physical infrastructures.
Explore factors that hinder the provision of physical infrastructures.
Forward possible recommendations for the problem of physical infrastructure based on the principal findings.
Research questionsBased on the objective of the study the following questions would raised to come up with some solutions
What is the status of the existing physical infrastructure (water, electricity, and road) in the study area?
Are the dwellers of Kuy town, cooperative housing sites, satisfied with the existing water, electricity and road infrastructure?
What are the factors that hinder the provision of physical infrastructure in the study area?
Conceptual definitionsThe conceptual definition of terms that was utilized in this study include;-
Housing: a residential environment that consisting of the dwelling units, the infrastructure associated with dwelling such as road, electricity, water supply system, sewage system etc. (Habtie, 2010).
Cooperative Housing: – type of housing scheme that exists primarily to provide housing and related service to its members to live in through a cooperative corporation (Chicago mutual housing, 2004).
Infrastructure:- the basic facilities, service, and installations needed for the functioning of a community or society such as road, water supply, sewers, electricity, etc. (American Heritage dictionary).
Physical infrastructure:- are a combined and interconnected network that provides essential public services such as electricity, water supply, sanitation, solid waste management, road, drainage, etc. (World bank, 1994 as cited by Dola, Azizi and Yusof, 2015)
Infrastructure provision: – bringing into existence of the basic amenities and services, this must be in place for a particular activity (Opeyemi et al., 2014).
Significance of the studyThe provision of basic infrastructure such as water, electricity, and road are the main problem in whole world predominantly in poor countries like Ethiopia. Hence, the study result shows that the existing water supply, electricity supply, and road infrastructure situation in Kuy town cooperative housing sites by investigating the source, cost, interruption and accessibility of water, and source, interruption and cost of electricity supply, access road and state of road, satisfaction with this basic infrastructure and factors that hinder the provision of this infrastructure. It provide insight for town administration, infrastructure provision organizations, NGO, community based organizations and other stalk holders who are concerned with the problem basic infrastructure provision. It also serves as a base line for other researchers who will be interested in the area. Besides, the study would have academic significant to fulfill the partial requirement of the Master of Degree in Urban Housing Development and Management.
Scope of the studyThe problems of basic infrastructure like water, electricity, telecommunication, transportation, drainage, waste disposal system, sanitation are common in all over the world particularly in developing countries like Ethiopia. However, it is difficult to cover all the problems at once in all areas. Thus, this research mainly focused on the provision of physical infrastructure specifically water supply, electricity supply and road infrastructure with a geographical limit of Kuy town, cooperative housing sites, in Amhara regional state from November to June 2018. This research does not include other physical and social infrastructures in the study area. The reason why the researcher selected these physical infrastructures was access to improved water, road and electricity are the most significant basic physical infrastructure that is required in housing state (Woka, 2014).
The main reasons for selecting Kuy town, cooperative housing sites as a study area are due to the researcher’s personnel acquaintance with the area as his work place, the research is fully aware of the problems of basic infrastructure (water, electricity and road) faced the people who live in cooperative housing sites of the town. The problem of these basic infrastructures is critical and it required urgent attention in the cooperative housing sites of the town but the problems were not yet assessed to address the problems. With this view, the researcher wants to study the provision of water, electricity and road infrastructure in Kuy town cooperative housing sites.
Description of the study areaKuy is found in East Gojjam zone in the Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia. It bordered in the east direction by Kuy Getter kebelle, in the north by Asendabo kebelle, in the south by Kuy Getter kebelle, and in the west by Kuy Getter kebelle. Based on the 2007 national census conducted by the central statistical agency of Ethiopia (CSA), this town has a total population of 8427 out of which 4634 were male and 3793 were female.
Kuy is a town for Debay Tilategen woreda in East Gojjam Zone of Amhara national regional state of Ethiopia, located 270 km away from Addis Ababa and 60 km away from the East Gojjam zone town Debre Markos. The area is located at 100 29 ‘ N latitude and 380 02’ E longitudes in the globe. In addition to this, the average elevation becomes 1500 meters above sea level with the temperature that ranges from 100c -250c and the annual rainfall is 1200mm to 1800mm.
Figure 1. SEQ Figure_1. * ARABIC 1: Map of the study area
Source: Arc GIS version 10.3
Organization of the ThesisThis thesis consists of five chapters. The first chapter is the one section that deals with background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives and research questions, conceptual definition, significance and the scope of the study, description of the study area and this part. The second chapter of the study explored review of related literatures. The research methodology adopted for the study including research strategy, design and approach, method of data collection, source of data, decisions regarding sample procedures and sample size, data analysis and presentation would present in chapter three. Then the fourth chapter contains data analysis and discussions. Finally, the paper is summarized with main findings, conclusions and some recommendations in chapter five to overcome the problems of basic infrastructure in Kuy town cooperative housing sites. CHAPTER TWOREVIEW OF RELATED LITERATUREIntroductionThis chapter deals with the theoretical overview of physical infrastructure provision in housing. It assess the concept of housing and definition of cooperative housing, infrastructure, classification and components of infrastructure, infrastructure provision, organizational set up for the provision of infrastructure, physical infrastructure provision in housing, factors that hinder the provision of infrastructure and approaches to enhance infrastructure provision. In addition to this, it assess infrastructure provision in Ethiopia, electric supply at Addis Ababa and three countries experience related to the matter under investigation.
The concept of housing and Definition of housingThe concept of housingHousing is a critical basic need of man. It defined as residential environment, which includes in addition to the physical structure that humans use for shelter, all necessary service, facilities, equipment and devices needed or desired for the physical and mental health, as well as, social wellbeing of the family and individuals (WHO) as cited by Owolcho, (2015). It also defined, as housing is a physical shelter that is located in a place and provided for human habitation with all infrastructure and service for the physical as well as the social- wellbeing of the family and individuals (Habtie, 2010). Housing represents one of the most basic human needs; it has its own impact on the health, welfare, social attitude and economic productivity of the individual. It also shows as the personal standard of living and of his or her place in the society and it takes an indispensable part of ensuring human dignity (Opeyemi, et al., 2014).
Housing is adequate when the housing encompasses freedom, entitlement, must be more than four walls and a roof, protection against forced eviction, accessibility of service, material, and infrastructure, etc… Access to adequate housing can be a precondition for the enjoyment of several human rights, including the rights to work, health, social security, vote, privacy or education (UN-Habitat, 2010). Now a day most countries recognized that housing is a basic human need. It is the desire of every government to see that its people have access to decent and affordable housing (Mensah and Sanvie, 2013). Overall the majority of national and local government are still struggling to meet the housing needs of their respecting population (UN-Habitat III, 2015). No national government has yet succeeded in the provision of housing for its entire citizen’s in the ways of a required standard at a cost, which favor the low-income family (Andrusz, 1984 as cited by Habtie, 2010).
It is fact that the government alone cannot fill the gap, hence the need for the private sector to take an active role in the housing (Opeyemi, et al., 2015). All state holders should collaborate towards enforceable standards for houses already built and future builds in order to guarantee to the house, sustainable development in the city (Adeoye, 2015). Therefore, to address the problem there have been different housing development approaches among these approaches, cooperative housing is a key element of the global housing development strategy (Lbem and Aduwo, 2012).
Definition of cooperative housing
The cooperative is an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social, and cultural needs and aspiration through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprise (ICA, 1995). Further, a cooperative society is an association of persons who are grappling with a common problem and who organized to solve this problem. People form an integral and pooling together resources, which results in economies of scale and serve as a source of efficiency and bringing power for the secure better service in terms of quality and cost than could be achieved otherwise (Liblit, 1964: UNCHS, 2001 as cited by Bekele, 2003).
Cooperative housing is one type of cooperative that primarily exists to provide housing and related service to its cooperative members through a cooperative corporation where they purchase shares of stock in the corporation, which entitles them the right to live perpetually within a specific unit and participation in the decision-making process (Chicago Mutual Housing, 2004). Further cooperative housing can be describe as a legal entity that consists of members that work together to manage the dwelling either owned or leased by the cooperatives. It becomes one of the most important housing development alternatives to address the current housing problems, especially for middle and low-income households in urban areas (Fu, 2007).Basic concept of infrastructure and Infrastructure provision
The concept of infrastructure can defined differently depending on the current realities of countries and institutions and that its organization and classification varies accordingly. Moreover, the term infrastructure can be define and used differently, by a different group of professionals (Housing and Infrastructure Development, 2015).
Infrastructure refers to the basic facilities, service, and installations needed for the functioning of a community or society such as road, water supply, sewers, electricity, and telecommunication thereby etc(American Heritage dictionary). In addition, infrastructure described as facilities and basic systems on which the sustainability and the development of a society depend. Typically, it refers to the technical structures that support the development of a society, such as roads, water supply, sewers, electricity, telecommunication etc. (Ziara and Ayyub, 1996 as cited by Owolcho, 2015). Furthermore, infrastructure can also described as the set of interconnected structural elements that provide the framework supporting an entire structure of development. It shows the status or the development of a country, region, and individuals and it is essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living conditions (Opeyemi et al., 2014).
Infrastructure is the prerequisite for the development of an economy. It is difficult to imagine a modern world without the following infrastructure transportation, telecommunications, electricity, water, sanitation, housing, and education facilities that have become a part and a parcel of human existence (Srinivasu and Srinivasa, 2013). It plays a major role in the social and economic development of the community. Areas without access to effective infrastructure are characterized by high levels of poverty (Smith and Lombard, 2008). Depending on the level of urbanization and country’s economic development, infrastructure is always associated to ensuring the socioeconomic and local development of any country. It is well known that infrastructure (road, water supply, sewers, power, telecommunication etc.) is like a blood vessel for social and economic development of a city or a country (World Bank policy research, 2004).
The well-being of any society depends on the availability of basic infrastructure to support housing (Abubakar, et al., 2015). However, the quality and coverage of infrastructure and service have a major impact on the living standards and economic growth of the community (Owolcho, 2015). Moreover, it is an important aspect of housing development as it provides a suitable environment for the inhabitants to live comfortably (Ibid). To be sustainable in housing development, basic infrastructure has to be putting in place. Therefore, an ideal neighborhood should provide with good roads, drainage network, electricity, potable water supply and better waste management system and the existence of this service provides the issue of sustainability in a housing development (Opeyemi et al., 2014).
Classification and Components of infrastructureInfrastructure refers to all basic inputs in to and required for the proper functioning of the economy (Housing and Infrastructure development, 2015). In spite of this, there are two generally accepted categories, namely:
A. Economic infrastructure
B. Social infrastructures
Economic infrastructure refers to physical networks necessary for the operation of a modern industrial state, such as roads, electricity, water supply, sewage disposal, telecommunication (Kumer, 2005 as cited by Owolcho, 2015). It is also a part of an economy’s capital stock used to facilitate economic production or serve as input to production such as electricity, roads, water and ports. This helps to produce items that are consumed by households (Housing and Infrastructure Development, 2015). Economic infrastructure is often refers to as physical infrastructure with the following basic components which are water supply, sanitation, adequate waste disposal, power supply, road, drainage system telecommunication (Nubi, 2003 and Zakout, 2006).
Social infrastructure refers to institutions which are needed to sustain the economic, societal, health and cultural standards of a country, such as an educational system, the health organization, financial system and other inspection and repairs (Kumer, 2005 as cited by Owolcho, 2015). This non-tangible infrastructure supports the development and operation of economic infrastructure that has both direct and indirect impacts on the quality of life. According to Zakout, (2006) social infrastructure has the following major components, which are parking and green spaces, educational system, health system, religious institution, public market, public service building.Infrastructure provisionInfrastructure provision refers to bringing into existence of the basic amenities and services, which must be in place for a particular activity. However, no nation can boast of significant development or an enhanced economy without providing the basic infrastructure for the citizens’ wellbeing. Adequate provision of infrastructure facilities are considered as critical components and facilitator of economic development and a key to improve the quality of life in any community irrespective of size (Opeyemi et al., 2014). It has been officially recognize that, it is an essential ingredient for productivity and growth of an individual or in the country (Srinivasu and Srinivasa, 2013).
The presence, absence as well as the quality of urban infrastructure greatly affects the welfare of citizens and an efficient functioning of urban economy (Yirsaw, 2012). As a result, the provision of quality and efficient infrastructure services is essential to realize the full potential of the growth impulses surging through the economy (De.p, 2008). In most cases, municipal government performs the provision of infrastructure. The provision of infrastructure through private sector becomes the second approach due to the prevailing initiative towards the liberalization of the provision of infrastructure and international agency emphasis on the involvement of the private sector in infrastructure development cities have engaged the services, private operators in infrastructure development (Ogu, 2005, Kihato, 2009) as cited by Owolcho, 2015).
An area without access to effective infrastructure is inevitably characterized by high levels of poverty, with municipalities tends to focus on two key infrastructure delivery issues; the provision of access to basic municipal services such as water, sanitation, electricity, solid waste removal, and the provision and maintenance of general infrastructure and service within the municipal area. This approach mainly manifests in a prioritized program covering, provision of free basic service, access to municipal service in previously disadvantaged areas, water service (provision and maintenance), electricity provision, solid waste disposal provision, road and storm water management, etc. (Smith and Lamba, 2008).
Organization set up for the provision of infrastructureThe provision of infrastructure and services in decentralized institutional settings is not being the responsibility of a single sector. However, regulating, financing, and undertaking of function such as alignments choice, service standard, project priorities, construction and operation, and maintenance of service should be allocate in relation to the particular characteristics of each service. The assignment of these functions varies among countries according to institutional and policy framework, and also between jurisdiction and communities in response to the need, means, and the various actors from the public, private and nongovernmental organization (NGO) sector operating at the local level. The decision regarding the service should rest with an entity of governance close to the community that is able to deliver these services in cost-effective ways (Serageldin, Kim, and Wahba, 2000).
The provision of infrastructure involves all sphere of government and a whole range of sector. There is a strong need of for both cooperative governance and cross sector collaboration,(https://www.scribd.com/document). Decentralization has given local governments the responsibility and their scope they need to take a lead role in responding to the challenges of the economic downturn, degradation to the urban environment, and social hardship (Ibid).
The role of central government in infrastructure provisionThe central government can play several roles in the provision of urban basic infrastructure and service, assignment of responsibility payment of grants or subsidies to implement agencies, and the direct provision or sponsorship of loan finance for infrastructure provision (Asmamew, 2000). The central government should have the primary responsibility for ensuring the quality and consistency of infrastructure network that affect the well-being of citizens in multiple jurisdictions (World Bank group, 2001).
The central government plays the following roles in the provision of infrastructure
Creating an overall enabling environment for basic infrastructure service delivery
Policy development on infrastructure
Macro planning to identify infrastructure and resource requirements.
Support all spheres of government (capacity building) in fulfilling their mandates functions on the delivery of infrastructure.
Monitor and evaluate policy outcomes
Communication and awareness
The role of local government in infrastructure provisionLocal government plans, develops and maintains key infrastructure for its communities. It provides and maintains infrastructure such as local roads, water, sewerage, drainage and waste disposal. The local government also has planning responsibilities that affect the provision of infrastructure, whether by the government or business (http://regional.gov.au). In less developed countries local governments have been assigned arrange of functions related to the provision of local good and services. It plays an important redistribution role in the provision of subsidized or free services to the low-income residents including the provision of basic human needs such as water supply, road and electric power. Generally, the local government has usually been located responsibility to provide the basic service to prevent the service private monopoly (Asmamew, 2000).
Local government has fully or partial responsibility for the provision of physical infrastructure. However, due to urban growth especially in developing countries it created major social, economic and physical problems. This makes the provision of basic infrastructure such as electricity, water and telecommunication become in adequate (Ibid). Generally, the role of local government in infrastructure provision can be summarizing as follows.
Planning and budget to the efficient provision of urban public services to meet the need of the community.
Support municipalities to develop their capacity to manage effectively the provision of infrastructure.
Plan, control, and monitor the use of land environmental issues.
Under take, efficiently and effectively functions allocated to it by the central government.
Physical infrastructure provision in housingWater supplyWater is the vital and the basic source of life and no one can live without water. People need water, principally for drinking, cooking, bathing, and laundry (Cotton and Tayler, 2000). The importance of water to the main kind is immeasurable. It serves as life support and a source of hygiene, which is an important ingredient of wellbeing. Hence, one of the most needs of man for his daily survival is water (Opeyemi et al., 2014).Water supply is the provision of water for domestic, industrial, and irrigation needs and the engineering, installation necessary to treat and pump the water to the consumer. Standpipe or public pipe, household connection, domestic resellers and intermediate service providers are the major options for water service provision in urban areas (UN- habitat, 2006).
The coverage of water supply in urban area provides a picture of the water supply situation of one specific country area and helps to compare one country with other and the inter and intra city distribution with in specific country. The percentage of population with or without piped water connection is relevant indicator to compare the coverage of water supply in urban area. Although the water supply coverage is better in urban areas while compared with the rural, the actual water supply coverage in cities of developing countries in general and African cities in particular is very low while compared to the demand (Melaku, 2015).
The level of water supply service provided to a community is define in terms of the quantity of water supplied per person per day, the quality of water supplied, the continuity and pressure at which water they are by a piped system, and the number and the location of water supply point (Zakout, 2006). Access to safe water is the share of the population with reasonable access to an adequate amount of safe water. In urban areas, the water source may be a public fountain or a standpipe not more than 200 meters away from households and the adequate amount of water, which is needed to satisfy metabolic, hygienic and domestic requirements usually about 20 liters of safe water per person per day. This minimum quantity however vary depending on whether it is an urban or rural location and whether warm or hot climate (UN-Habitat, 2003). If less than 50 percent of the households of a given settlement has accessed improved water supply from the household connection, public standpipe and rainwater with at least 20 liters per person per day available with an acceptable collection distance (not more than 200 meters), the provision of water in that settlement become inadequate (Ibid).
Beside, time and distance it takes to fetch water and its affordability are basic indicators for measuring accessibility of water. These indicators show four levels of water accessibility that include optimal access water supply through taps continuously, intermediate access water supplied through multiple taps continuously within less than 100m distance travel and within 5 minutes. Basic access between 100m and 1000m distance and 5-30 minutes time and no access more than 1000m distance travel and more than 30 minutes time (WHO, 2004) as cited by Yehuala, (2015). The affordability of water has also a significant influence on the use of water and selection of water sources. Households with the lowest level of access to safe water supply frequently pay more for their water than households connected to a piped water system. the high cost of water may force households to use small quantity of water and alternative sources of poorer quality that represent a great risk too(Public health protection, 2000).
In addition, the interruptions of drinking water supply through intermittent sources or through resulting from engineering inefficiencies are a major determinant of the access to and quality of drinking water. Daily or weekly discontinuity results in low supply pressure and a consequent risk of in-pipe recontamination. Other consequences include reduced availability and lower volume use, which adversely affect hygiene. Households’ water storage may be necessary, and this may lead to an increase in the risk of contamination during such storage and associated handling. Seasonal discontinuity often forces users to obtain water from inferior and distant sources (WHO, 2008).
Electric power supplyElectricity supply or power infrastructure refers to the provision of electricity to the population. Regular supply is very necessary for the all-round development of any nation. Power plays an important role in domestic life since it is required to power household equipment like television, pressing iron, washing machine, cookers, its aid to power utilities like streetlights, local water supplies. Aside domestic uses, commercial and industrial concerns need a constant supply of electricity for their businesses. Owing to the epileptic electricity supply, many consumers have resorted to using alternatives such as a lantern, kerosene stove, gas lamps, and generators. However, the use of these alternative sources of the power supply has sometimes caused an explosion resulting in loss of lives and properties. Therefore, the supply of electricity as infrastructure provision must efficiently integrate into the general housing layout (Opeyemi et al., 2014). It is necessary to estimate the existing demand the likely growth in that demand. On average 0.75-1.0 kilowatt per household (kW/h.h) which allows for the typical nature of the demand patterns of consumer is suitable for the urban low income households (Cotton and Tayler, 2000).
RoadRoad or streets are the most basic facilities or infrastructure to facilitate transportation of people and goods; they even provide space for other types of infrastructure such as water, electricity, and telecommunications in their right way above or below the ground (Japan, 2004; Rianer, 1990 as cited by Zakout, 2006). Road can be asphalt, earth, cobble stone and gravel road based on construction material and their quality can vary depending on their construction materials. In almost all urban centers, the road is the major means of transportation. For the economic, social and political development of the urban center or neighborhood, she is the need for efficient and effective urban transport network. This network is the combination of a roadway, parking, and walkways that used to achieve the movement of people and goods. It is an indispensable aspect of the planning of urban space and it must be inculcate into the planning process at its earliest stages (Opeyemi et al., 2014).
Accessibility in road infrastructure refers to the opportunity to use or the right to or the ability to reach some destiny. Accessibility of road can measured as the percentage of population having access to all weather roads. The benefits of having access to a road net work are measured in terms of reductions in monetary costs or time needed by beneficiaries to access output markets or key public social services like health and education(Worku, 2011). Access to road enables the inhabitants of a site to move freely from their home to other neighboring areas. The level of development determines the relationship between the land used for streets and the land they serve. Lower density detached house on a separate lot requires longer streets than do higher density cluster or multistory housing. Therefore, the balance between them highly depends on the desirable planning standards, which may specify large access width by taking up land needed to adopt small lot sizes and high housing density to cope up the demand for housing (Cotton and Tayler, 2000). However, municipalities are responsible to provide adequate cluster access; site distributes, site access road and trunk roads, whereas the owner of the house or the developer is responsible to construct the connecting footpath (Zakout, 2006). According to Cotton and Tayler (2000) road can be classifying into five major hierarchies, namely:
a) Trunk road: – it forms the perimeter of neighboring residential districts and it provides a network between different districts when there is a traffic concentration.
b) Site access road (Main Street): – it includes lead off the trunk road and it designed to access housing sites in neighboring residential and other districts.
c) Site distributor (collector streets): – They expedite traffic movement within neighborhoods and connect all the housing clusters to the site across the road.
d) Cluster access (local streets): -they give access to individual households, and known as residential streets.
f) Connecting footpath (special streets): – This kind of streets are designed for pedestrian and bicycles excluding other vehicles. It used for connecting the cluster.
SanitationAccording to World Health Organization (WHO), defines sanitation as group of methods to collect human excreta and urine as well as community wastewaters in a hygienic way, where human and community health is not alter. Many developing countries face a critical shortage of adequate sanitation facilities, which places an unnecessary burden on already over-stressed health care services and supporting government entities (https://www.scribd.com).
Sanitation is biggest issues that need to be address on an emergency basis. Although it has been bond with the millennium development goal yet the sanitation condition are deplorable in many developing countries. Sanitation and human health are highly interconnected to each other. Inadequate treatment or disposal of human excreta and other waste can lead to transmitting and spreading of disease from excreta. Therefore, it is very important to safeguard adequate sanitation provision to reduce the amount of infections and access of the causes of its (Housing and Infrastructure Development, 2015/16).The necessary social, institutional, financial and administrative arrangements must be in a place to achieve the principles and practices of adequate sanitation service. Good sanitation is aesthetically desirable, and has important health implications. In communities, which lack sanitation, most disease transmission occurs in the heavily contaminated neighborhood environment independently of household levels of hygiene. Access to sanitation and water is a necessary precursor to other forms of development. Without easy access to this facility, time spent on water collection, household income spent on medical treatment and water pouches, all contribute to keeping people in the poverty trap (Ibid).
Solid waste disposalThe incessant accumulation of solid waste, especially along streets and even along the highways has become an environmental hazard. In some urban centers, there may be no designated spot to deposit the waste for their onwards disposal. Therefore, people throw about indiscriminately, even into the drainage channels, hoping that the floodwater will carry the waste away when rain falls. Unfortunately, some of these waste deposits end up clogging the drainage channels and turning the flooding of our roads into permanent scenery in the environment (Opeyemi, et.al, 2014). The type and size of waste generated in cities differ based on the growth stage of the city. In most cases, most of the wastes in city generated from residential houses, trading houses, restaurant, shops, medical institutions, from trash collected, from roads, byproducts from construction sites. If a proper and scientific waste management system is set up, more than half percent of waste could be disposed of without causing health risks and by generating economic benefits (Housing and Infrastructure Development, 2015/16).
The collection and disposal of solid waste is one of the major problems of sanitation. Solid waste handling must analyze in terms of sound engineering management. Because volumes of material, type of material, salvage requirements, and methods of disposal vary, not all locations can operate identical collection systems (http://www.defence.gov.au/jlc).
Drainage is the removal of surface or subsurface water from an area through natural or artificial means. The important principle for any type of land drainage is to provide an open, equate, and readily accessible channel through which the surface or subsoil water can flow, for the purpose of this open ditches are sometimes used but these open ditches are not always satisfactory. Because they most become choked with sediment and vegetation. But the most efficient types of closed drains is tile drain, which is composed of pipes made of sections of hollow earth war concrete titles that are buried in the depth of about 1 to 2 m (3 to 6 ft) (Opeyemi et al., 20014). In urban areas the paved roads and built environment, decrease the surface area of storm water absorption, there is little opportunity for rainwater to penetrate into the ground. Due to this, there is a speed up rate of storm water runoff, causing flooding, and erosion, which costs very much to be, treated. Therefore, an adequate drainage system is essential in any area (Zakout, 2006).
TelecommunicationCommunication is an act of exchanging information, parcels, massage, and other documents from one place to another place. The existence of communication infrastructure increases the living standard of the community. The role of effective communication infrastructure in the economy cannot emphasize. Individual people, business, and government use many different types of communication system as a means of interaction. Information, messages and ideas easily convey from one place to another place through effective communication. Effective provision of postal and telecommunication system, including the telephone, telegraph, telex, cell phones and other means of communication will reduce the burden on the urban roads as many urban dwellers would be able to transact their business through the available communication system rather than face the congested roads. Furthermore, in such situation, commercial and industrial lines can operate more efficiently (Opeyemi, et.al, 2014).
Factors that hinder adequate infrastructure provision The nature of infrastructure (concentration, quality, and efficiency) will vary from national level through the province, and region ultimately to municipalities, subject to an area range political and economic legacy (Smith and Lomba, 2008). This difference in infrastructure across a region have implication for the prosperity of the city and reflect a variety of factors, including income, development or economic growth, peace of urbanization, technical capacities and political commitments (Abdul-Aziz, Owoicho, and Badiru, 2015).
The provision of Infrastructure is a prolonged process that involves financing, construction, and renovation that is involved in a multitude of agents, and the coordination between these different agents is a thereby challenge that affects the process of infrastructure at the global level (Dola et al., 2015). Furthermore, the provision of infrastructure can influence by deficiencies resulting from organizational problems such as coordination and communication shortcoming among administrative units (Ibid). The major factor that hinders the adequate provision or development of infrastructure is many but the following are the major one.
Lack of financeFunding as one of the major factor that affect the provision of adequate infrastructure and it became the major hindrance to infrastructural provision and other projects development (Odenyinka and Yusuf, 1997 as cited by Owoicho, 2015).As the country’s population soars, demand for additional infrastructure in all sectors also increases. Unfortunately, the government resources can hardly meet the increasing demand. Consequently, government has relied on foreign loans to complement budgetary allocations in the provision of infrastructure and this make the provision of infrastructure inadequate (Olaseni and Alade, 2012). But lack of funding or financial limit alone is not the root cause of poor infrastructure and service, rather it is a symptom of more fundamental problems and these include instability, lack of confidence, distorted economic policies and difficult of governance (Durodola et al., 2016).
Poor- government participation
Poor participation and the inability of the government to provide primary infrastructure becomes the most significant factors that affect the provision of infrastructure (Olaseni and Alade, 2012). Due to instability, lack of confidence, distorted economic policies and difficult of governance, government did not keep to its own side of the bargain by failing to provide primary infrastructure to most of the area as that require infrastructure provision. Apart from poor participation of government, poor system of governance and poor participatory approach in the provision of infrastructure is largely responsible for the poor state of infrastructure provision (Ibid).
Lack of coordinationCoordination is a significant issue in the provision of urban infrastructure provision because of the inter dependencies within and among different urban infrastructure. More ever, coordination is an important key enabler for success of infrastructure provision, since there are a large number of interdependence participants, different urban infrastructure agencies involved in to the issue of infrastructure (Dola, et al., 2015). Provision of urban infrastructure demands a great coordination between government agencies at city, state, national even at the local level. Lack of coordination between different government organization especially the city administration and the infrastructure provision institution become the major challenge that hinder the provision of adequate infrastructure (Demeke, 2006).
CorruptionCorruption has become a major socio-economic impact on infrastructure provision and development. Embezzlement of fund allocated for infrastructure development is a common feature in public offices. In addition, many projects for which funds have been allocated and released were never completed while inflation of project costs is a common experience. This is due to in most cases civil servants in charging of such projects collect bribe from contractors and this either result in substandard job or abandonment (Olaseni and Alade, 2012).
Population exploitationPopulation explosion is one of the major factors that affect the provision as well as the development of infrastructure because, this population exploitation need infrastructure to support their day-to-day life (Olaseni and Alade, 2012). The physical as well as the social infrastructure needed to support a huge population and it requires huge funding, this placed undue pressure on the existing infrastructure and on government budgets. Thus, infrastructure base is grossly in adequate provision and suffered from deterred maintenance (Ibid).
Approaches to enhance the provision of infrastructurePlanning and BudgetingIt is a way that the government priorities to review how its resource are budgeted. For any city, forecasting expenditure and how budgeting is allocated can be enhanced through community consultation. Incorporating relevant stakeholders in budgetary planning allows citizens to understand the rationale for decision made and the tradeoffs they represent, there by building support for city actions and reducing the likelihood of conflicts rising from future changes plans. One example of a participatory budgeting and planning tool is a public forum that engages the citizenry in discussion about proposed capital projects, infrastructure provision and improvement(Demeke, 2006).
To enhance the provision of infrastructure the government should actively involve and provide primary infrastructure, and provide access to funding to the housing developers. The provision of these primary infrastructures in the district would motivate developers in the development of secondary infrastructure in the district. In addition, the government needs to identify the poor and committed to the provision this primary infrastructure and government needed to fashion out a way to provide intervention for the funding to the private housing developers through a long-term loan in low-interest rate(Owoicho, 2011).
Creating participatory management approachParticipatory management approach is also important to enhance infrastructural provision. Participatory management refers to involving residents in a meaning full and inclusive way in the governance of the cities and the provision of their infrastructure through utilizing their skills, knowledge, and strength at the municipal level. It facilitates policy implementation, limits conflicts and reduces the costs and benefits’ of governance decision, are less likely to resist the change and to distrust local authorities (Demeke, 2006). However, to be successful in participatory management there should be strong leadership and political will among city authorities to open the governance process, invite meaningful citizen participation, and incorporate the community’s collective opinion in government decision making. Successful participatory management also requires open and consistent communication and information sharing among local authorities and the community (Ibid).
CoordinationCoordination is an essential mechanism through which disparate in infrastructure agencies come together with the intention of making their efforts in the context of infrastructure provision to make more compatible in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, and equity. Provision of infrastructure demanded a great of coordination between government agencies at the city, state and national level (Dola et al., 2015).Coordination is an important key enabler for the success of infrastructural provision since there are a large number of interdependent participants, different infrastructure agencies, involved in the process of infrastructure provision. In addition, the complexity nature of infrastructure provision, coordination is important. The silent key characteristics of infrastructure interdependency, an improvement in administration in the aspect of infrastructure provision demand collaboration and coordination between different infrastructure authorities (Ibid).
Conceptual frameworkFigure 2. SEQ Figure_2. * ARABIC 1 Conceptual frameworkPopulation explosion
Poor government participation
Lack of coordination
Lack of finance
Physical infrastructure provision (water, electricity and road)
Source of water supply
Water supply interruption
Accessibility of water
Quality of water
Type of access road
State of road
Drainage system in road
Availability of electricity supply
Source of electricity supply
Electric power interruption
Cost of service
Dwellers satisfaction with the existing water, electricity, and road infrastructure
Source; self- organized, 2018
The above figure show that lack of finance, lack of coordination, corruption, poor government participation and population exploitation are the major factors that hinder the provision of infrastructure as well as the status of the existing infrastructure in a residential area. In turn, the status of existing infrastructure such as water, electricity and access road may affect the satisfaction of dwellers in the area. Let us elaborate one by one.
The problem of finance can greatly affect the provision as well as the status of the existing infrastructure such as water, electricity and road infrastructure in the housing state. When the government or other private sectors are facing, a problem of finance to provide this infrastructure the provision becomes in adequate and deteriorated. Lack of coordination between government bodies and other private sector is also the major factors that hinder the provision of this infrastructure. Since the provision of one infrastructure may affect the provision or the development of other infrastructure and it requires interdependency between them. In addition, coordination becomes important to provide basic physical infrastructure adequately and to improve the nature and status existing infrastructure.
Corruption has become a major factor that hinders the provision of physical infrastructure. Embezzlement of fund allocated for the provision or the development of physical infrastructure results inadequate physical infrastructure provision. Poor government participation also hinders the provision of physical infrastructure. When the activity of local government in the provision of physical infrastructure is poor, the development of physical infrastructure is inadequate and inability of government to provide primary infrastructure affect the development of other infrastructure. In addition, rapid population growth required basic infrastructure provision to support their day-to-day activity and it exert huge pressure in the existing infrastructure and it results inadequate and deteriorated physical infrastructure.
Generally, the above mention factors are the major factor that hinders the provision of new infrastructure as well as the status of existing infrastructure in residential area. In turn, status of this physical infrastructure may affect the satisfaction of dwellers in the provision of physical infrastructure.
Empirical literature Infrastructure provision in EthiopiaThe urban growth rate of Ethiopia is 4.5 percent, which is not much higher than the 3.2 percent average for the continents and the same as the average for least developed countries. It places urban government in lack of adequate infrastructure provision. In this regarded the major challenge for the municipality government would be the provision of adequate and sustainable infrastructure not only for the well-being of the residents but also for optimal economic development to all cities and towns (Wubante, 2012).
The participation of private sectors in the provision of infrastructure is limited, with the responsibility mainly shouldered by municipality and regional government. As a result the government of Ethiopia which is the main funder of infrastructure project is faced with a serious budgetary constraints for the provision of infrastructure(Ibid).It also characterized by various defects, which is resulted from the process based defects , lack of integrated urban infrastructure policy, institutional, planning and technological related problems (Yirsaw, 2012).
The Ethiopian government has institutionalized very recently, the urban development policy. This policy put urban areas as the growth engines of the economy of the country at the heart of it is infrastructure development. However, the document kept silent regarding urban population momentum, which is a cause of infrastructure and urban life strain. Furthermore, intervention strategies that make urban infrastructure sustainable and, cities and towns to function properly and become comfortable for the people to live there was not thoroughly documented and analyzed. Lack of this analysis will definitely be resulted into deficiency of infrastructure (Wubante, 2012).
Electric supply provision at Addis Ababa
Electricity the first source of energy in Addis Ababa households, kerosene and fuel wood the second and the third respectively. The highest electric energy consumption in Addis Ababa households in 2001 was exhibited in the household sector, which consumed close to 45.3% of the entire utilization in the metropolis, and followed by commerce and industrial sectors, which accounted for 31% and 23% respectively (Aziz, 2015).
In Addis Ababa, about 47% of the electricity consumed went to households between 1994 and 2004. Even the most dwelling units that are connected to power grids; it is well known that poor and low-income households do not enjoy the full benefits electricity in the some part of the city. Electric power that reaches residential units is simply too weak to enable house households major electrical appliances or even to bake the traditional pancake known as enjera during peak electricity consumption hours. The problem is worst in squatter settlement, where the sharing of a single electric meter by several 30 households is widespread. In addition to this the fact that street in such neighborhoods are often without any streetlights and even tarred roads lack adequate streetlight in many part of the city. Streetlights were, on average consuming only 0.76% of the electric power used in Addis Ababa between 1999 and 2004(Ibid).
Experience from Orangi pilot project in Karachi, PakistanThe Orangi pilot project in Karachi Pakistan is one of the most success full interventions in the provision of sanitation infrastructure in slum area. The objective of the project were to understand the problem of sanitation in Orangi and their causes through action research developed solutions that people can manage finance and build. The project was an initiative of Orangi pilot project Research and Training Institute (OPP-RTI). The project was a community-owned, community-managed infrastructure provision program with the intention of improving sanitation for the residence of Orangi whose main form of sewerage disposal was bucket latrine or soaks pits and open sewers (Mathenge, 2013).
The project was started in 1980 to assists directly and indirectly about one million people in Orangi to improve their sanitation. It developed through research in to household resource and aspirations in Orangi. It has utilized minimal external support in order to assist household to achieve their objectives for local development. In addition, the project has also been able to incorporate the people of Orangi and the surrounding area in the provision of a number of additional services, which include housing, health and education facilities. Infrastructure provision by OPP-RTI has made a possibility by adopting; a low-cost sanitation programs that enables low -income households to construct and maintain modern toilets with their own funds and under their own management. The program me relies heavily on capacity building among the slum dwellers where it upgrades the skill of local masons by introducing proper construction techniques and through educating house- owners on planning, orientation and low-cost technology. The success of the project demonstrates the strength of alternative models of development, which depend on the scale of people’s initiative and activity.
Experience from Zambia infrastructure provisionZambia is one of African country were infrastructure is poorly delivered in the past. However, to solve this problem the government of Zambia organized Urban Restructuring and Water Supply project in 1995 to provide immediate solutions to the most severe water and sewerage infrastructure deficiencies in nine key urban areas. With the component of water supply and sanitation system rehabilitation, community based water, sanitation sub project and sect oral and local government reform. The community based demonstration sub project are implemented in about seven urban communities, and it extended up to at least 250,000 low income people in Lusaka and the Cooper belt councils. The component has the dual objectives of developing sustainable water supply and sanitation systems serving the urban poor, and of testing institutional mechanisms and linkages within and between local councils and participating communities.
The Department of Infrastructure and Support Services (DISS) of the Ministry of Local Government and Housing (MLGH) have overall responsibility for coordinating implementation. As the first objective of the project is to begin decentralizing the decision-making process surrounding the provision of urban services, most of the implementation has carried out at the local level by municipal and community authorities.
The central government provided financial supported the project through credited to the local government and the local government covers the cost. NGOs also engaged by the councils to provide assistance for community groups throughout planning, implementation and operation of the project. The users or the members of the community also participating in financing the addition cost of any higher level of service desired by the community for the project to gather with the cost of maintenance. The costs covered by the beneficiaries for the additional cost of any higher level of services were collected from the members of the community in the form of new user fees and water rates. The project was able to provide basic services like that of water for the low-income community of Zambia, through community based and local government authority reform in the provision of basic infrastructure (World Bank, 1997).
Experience from South Africa infrastructure provision
South Africa is one of African country were infrastructure is poorly delivered during the past time. However, from the mid-1990s, South Africa adopted a Municipal Infrastructure Program (MIP) with the aim of improving the quality of life of the poorest sections of South African communities through ensuring access to basic services. It is a multi-faceted development program containing different packages such as water supply, sewage, road, storm water drainage, transport facilities, toilet and sport facilities.
The Department of Constitutional Development (DCD) has been responsible for the integration of MIP projects into broader multifaceted development programs. Local governments in South Africa have been restructured to focus on the provision of basic infrastructure. The local government was strengthening their capacity to meet these goals. The program has met its mission to deliver infrastructure to remote locations most in need of assistance to marginalized urban communities. It has achieved its mission through the coordination of municipal infrastructure program by leveraging MIP fund and mobilizing local resources. The following are the collaborative process for acquiring MIP fund:
The community submits a project proposal to its municipal authorities for approval, assistance and support
The municipal government prepares a business plan for the project and submits it to the provincial cabinet for approval and mobilizing of grant fund.
The provincial government receives the grant funds from the national government and manages the fund in accordance with the approved business plans.
In addition to granting fund for the provision of basic infrastructure for the marginalized urban community from the national government, the local government also mobilizes the local resources as a source of finance to provide this basic infrastructure. Communities also actively participating in the planning, implementation, operation and maintenance activity of the project in different forms of material, labor, knowledge and in cash. By doing the above activities, the government of South Africa achieves the provision of basic infrastructure such as water and road for the marginalized urban communities at the local level (Ministry of Works and urban Development, 2006).
Lesson learntFrom the above best experience one can understand that the involvement of community in both financing and management activity of infrastructure provision become every important to address the problem of infrastructure especially for low-income society. Furthermore, making the planning, financing and management activity of infrastructure provision central to the concerned community create a sense of belongingness and it paves the way for another infrastructure development. In addition, the use of low cost construction material for the development of basic infrastructure is important especially for the poor urban communities.
In most cases, the provision of basic infrastructure is central to local government and the role of private sectors or the community in infrastructure provision is limited as result the provision of basic physical infrastructure become inadequate and deteriorated. Therefore, mobilizing the local resource and giving responsibility in the development or provision of infrastructure starting from planning up to the maintenance of existing infrastructure to the community is important to improve the infrastructure provision.
The reason why the researcher choose this best experience as empirical literature is to show that if the local government and communities in cooperative housing site of the study area join hand with little expectation like that of the above experiences. The government will respond or come to their aid together with the efforts of the communities then infrastructure provision in cooperative housing site of the study area can solve the problem in an integrated manner.
Literature gapDifferent studies were studied in relation to infrastructure development (provision) and cooperative housing in dependently. Yirsaw (2012) studied the problem of urban utility infrastructure provision in Ethiopia. The planning and institutional dimension of storm water drainage, electric power, telecommunication and water supply are the focus area of study. Findings show that the problem of integrated urban utility policy, institutions, planning and technology, based defect utility service provision, lack of comprehensive city planning an overlap of utility, weak institutional coordination, inefficient use of public resources, and high cost of compensation, procedural problems and inconsistency of performance are the most important problems of urban utility infrastructure provision problem. However, the researcher did not comprehensively studied the nature and status of the existing infrastructure, the satisfaction of dwellers in infrastructure provision in his study beyond the planning and institutional dimensional of infrastructure.
Aziz (2015) study the accessibility of public services to urban house in Addis Ababa at summit condominium housing site. Assessing the nature of public services, identify the accessibility of public services, analyze the supply and demand of public services and identifying the factors that affects the accessibility of public services are the major concern areas of the author. Findings show that there is a gap between the demand and supply of public services and there were a limitation on the quality and quantity of public services in study area.
Dawod (2012) studied the potentials and limitations of self-help cooperative housing as housing delivery in case of Tana kebelle in Bahirdar city. Potential and limitations of cooperative housing, the extent to which the low-income people benefited and the problems and constraints in the cooperative housing are the major focus area of the study. Findings show that cooperative housing has the potential, which create economic and social benefits for the low income. However, the absence of social mix and the design of the house is the major limitation of cooperative housing. Bekele (2003) also studied impediments of cooperative housing in Amhara regional state, in the case of Bahirdar city. The nature and the magnitude of housing problem, the potential and constraints of cooperative housing are the focus area of the study. Findings show that land provision, housing finance and the problem of physical infrastructure are the most important factors that affect the progress of cooperative housing.
Generally, the first two researchers studied the issue of urban utility infrastructure provision and accessibility of public service. The second two researchers studied about the issue of cooperative housing without considering the issue of physical infrastructure provision. However, no one emphasized about the provision of physical infrastructure in relation to the status of the existing physical infrastructure, dwellers satisfaction with the existing infrastructure and the factor that hinders the adequate provisions of these infrastructures. Moreover, no one researcher did any comprehensive research on the provision of physical infrastructure at Kuy town, Amhara regional state, cooperative housing site. Therefore, the researcher incites to study on the title of an assessment of physical infrastructure provision in Kuy town, cooperative housing site. The researcher understands the status of the existing physical infrastructure. In addition, the researcher explores the factors that hinder the provision of infrastructure, together with assessing the satisfaction of cooperative housing dwellers with the existing infrastructures. Based on the analysis the success and the fail of physical infrastructure service provision were identified at Kuy town, cooperative housing site. After clearly identifying the problem, the possible recommendations were forward to the concerned bodies.
CHAPTER THREERESEARCH METHODOLOGYIntroductionResearch methodology is a procedure by which a researcher goes about his/her work of describing, explaining and predicting phenomena in a systematic way to solve a problem (Rajasekar et.al, 2006). Therefore, the researcher has developed different methodology to conduct a study, which is suited to the subject matter. With this regard, this part of the research deals with research design, research strategy and approach, methods of data collection, sampling technique and sample size, source of data, data analysis and presentation with appropriate justifications. In addition to this limitation of the study and ethical consideration also discussed in this part.
Research designKothari, (2004) stated that depending on the purpose of research the research design can be descriptive, explanatory and exploratory. This study employed descriptive research design to assess the status of physical infrastructural, dwellers level of satisfaction and factors that hinder the provision of this infrastructure in the study area. Findings would complement with literature review and personal observation by the researcher. The major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs, as it exists at present (Ibid). The reason why the researcher selected this type of research design is descriptive research design hoped appropriate to get an exact description of the immediate status of infrastructure provision and its problem in the study area. Moreover, this enabled the researcher to keep the boundaries of the study and to anticipate the potential problems occurred in the actual data collection and analysis of the study.
The researcher employed a cross-sectional survey research strategy for this study. Survey research is a systematic gathering of data from a population through samples, by applying personal contact and interviews when adequate information about the certain problem is not available in records, files, and other sources in a single period of time (Pandey and Pandey 2015). The researcher selected this type of research strategy because cross-sectional survey research strategy is suitable to conduct research-using samples from the large study population through a questionnaire, interview, and observation with a specific point of time.
The researcher employed both qualitative and quantitative (mixed) research approach for this study to answer the research questions. The use of quantitative and qualitative methods in social research has been widely discussed as both methods have their advantages and disadvantages. In order to offset the weaknesses and draw on the strength of both the use of the mixed research approach becomes increasingly common in recent years (Bryman, 2006). With this regard, the researcher selected a mixed research approach because it helps to answer the research questions and to avoid the limitation of each of the above research approaches. For quantitative research, close-ended questions were prepared before the data collection period, it provided numerical evidence and it allows statistical tools, whereas for qualitative research open-ended questions, in the questionnaire, and semi-structured interview questions were prepared to gather depth information. Generally, the combination employed to support one another in the study.
Method of data collectionThe researcher used both primary and secondary data collection methods. The primary data both quantitative and qualitative were collected through questionnaire, interview and observation. Both open and close-ended format questions were designed to obtain information on the status of water, electricity and road infrastructure in cooperative housing sites of the study area, from the sample households. Besides, primary data were collected from the municipality office, water development office, Ethiopia electricity Power Corporation Kuy district and from woreda administrator through interview. The secondary data were collected from published and unpublished literatures and responsible bodies such as books, internet. Generally, the researcher used the following method of data collection to obtained both qualitative and quantitative data from the sample respondents for this study.
QuestionnaireA questionnaire is a systematic compilation of questions that submitted to a sampling of a population from which information is desired (Pandey, 2015). To gather information from the selected cooperative housing household head respondents, formal structured questionnaire was distributed to the sample population. The questionnaire had three main sections; the first section assessed the personal information of the respondents. The status of existing water, electricity and road infrastructure were assessed in the second section. Finally, the last section of the questionnaire assessed dwellers level of satisfaction with the existing water, electricity and road infrastructure in the study area.
InterviewThe interview questionnaire was developed with the intention of getting depth data about the status of water, road, and electricity supply, and factors that hinder the adequate provision of this infrastructure in the study area. Here, checklists were used to allow the respondents to express their views without restriction. Interview was made with municipality office, water development office, Ethiopia electric power Kuy town district and town administrator.
Filed observation Observation method involves the physical viewing of what is present and occurring at the site or geographical location of interest by the researcher (Tedlock, 1991 as cited by Tsion, 2016).The observable phenomena may be physical feature at the location of the study or behaviors of the respondents the researcher intends to study. The observation can be made and visualized as a photograph. In this study, the researcher observes water, road and electricity infrastructure in cooperative housing sites of the study area, captured, and visualized the situation-using camera.
Sampling technique is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. In order to enhance generalization and validity, taking adequate sample size and employing appropriate sample techniques would be given a special care and emphasis. Based on representation, the sampling technique may be probability sampling or it may be non-probability sampling (Kothari, 2004). .
For this study, the researcher employed both probability and non-probability sampling techniques. From probability sampling, particularly stratified sampling technique were employed to select the sample from the target population. According to Saunders (2009), the population divided in to a series of relevant strata means the sample is more likely to be representative, to ensure that each of the strata is represented proportionally within the sample. The researcher took the cooperative housing sites as strata of the sampling frame. After determining the sampling technique as stratified sampling, the next issue is determining the size of the sample from each stratum. Regarding this, the researcher followed the method of proportional allocation of sample size for each stratum to keep proportionality to the size of the strata, and then the simple random sampling procedure was employed in each stratum to draw appropriate samples.
Beside, from non-probability sampling technique the researcher used purposive sampling to select the four key informants or the concerned officials who are the source of qualitative data. The four concerned officials are, one from the water development office, one from the town municipality office, one from electrical power supply office, and woreda administrator purposefully selected through purposive sampling based on their knowledge in the subject matter. Generally, the researcher employed both probability (i.e. stratified simple random sampling) and non-probability ((i.e. purposive) sampling technique in this study.
PopulationA population is the entire mass of observation that meets a set of specification and from which a sample is to be formed. This study was targeted all households who live in cooperative housing site of the study area. According to the municipality of the town, now a day there are 592 households that have a house in the three sites of cooperative housing. Therefore, these 592 households become the population of this study.
Sampling frameA sampling frame refers to a list of all populations or elements in the target population from which the sample will select. Therefore, the samplings frame of this study comprises the list of households that have houses in the three cooperative housing sites of the study area or the three cooperative housing sites and the four concerned offices.
Sampling unitSampling unit refers to a member of the sampling frame or the members of the sample. It may be a geographical one, such as state, district, village or construction unit or it may be an individual. The sampling unit of this study was each member of 131 sample households who have houses in the three cooperative housing sites and four purposively selected individuals from the concerned office.
Sample sizeA sample size is the actual number of units, which were selected for the collection and analysis of data in the research. Determining the appropriate number of sample is important to avoid the error of precision and bias and even to keep representativeness of the sample of the target population. According to Kothari (2004), for the population, less than 10,000 the sample size is determined using the following formula. The formula used for determining the sample size:-
n=z2.p.qd2 Where n = the desired number of sample size
z = the level of standard variety at a given confidence level (z
p = Estimated characteristics of the sample population
q = 1-p
d = Level of statistical significance sets (marigine of error)
N = the number of target population
For this study N (the target population) is 592, z = 1.81 at 93% of confidence level in order to have a fair representative sample size, the sample size determined at 93% of confidence level.
d = 0.7 (the researcher accepted a marigine of error of plus or minus 7%), p = 0.5, q = 1- P, 1-0.5 = 0.5. Therefore, based on the above formula the sample size become
n=z2.p.qd2n=1.822.214.171.124.072n=3.276×0.250.0049=167.148 ?167 Hence, this sample represents a significant (over 5%) proportion of the population. As a result, the researcher decides to apply, a finite population correction factor because the total number of population is only 592. To determine the adjusted sample size the researcher uses the following formula.
na=n1+(n-1)N Where na = the number of adjusted sample size
n = the desired sample size (167) N = the number of total population (592)
Then na=n1+(n-1)N na =1671+167-1592=1671.281=130.48?131Therefore, the adjusted number of the sample size for this research is 131. Then the researcher needs proportionally allocate this sample size for the three sites (strata) of cooperative housing. According to Kothari (2004), the proportional allocation of sample size for each stratum from total sample can be determined by using the following formula.
ni = n. Pi Where Pi = NiN Where
ni = the number of elements selected from a given strata
n = the total sample size which is 131
Pi = the proportion of a population included in stratum (strata 1, strata 2 and strata 3 where i
denote the number of strata
N = the total number of target population 592 (N for strata 1= 80, N for strata 2 = 352 and N
for strata 3 =160)
Ni =the number of population in each strata (cooperative housing site for this study where)
Then, for strata (site 1) with N1= 80, we have P1 = 80/592 and
Hence n1 = n. P1 = 131× 80/592
=17.7 ? 18
Similarly for strata (site) 2 with N2 = 352, we have P2 =352/592 and hence
n2 = n. P2 = 131× 352/592
= 77.9? 78
For strata (site) 3 with N3 = 160 we have P3 = 160/592 and hence
n3 = n. P3 =131×160/592 = 35.4?35Thus, using proportional allocation, the sample size for the three different strata are 18, 78 and 35 respectively, which is proportional to the size of the strata 80: 352:160. In addition to this, four government-concerned officials were involved on the sample. Therefore, the total sample size of this research is 131+ 4 = 135 respondents.
Table 3. SEQ Table_3. * ARABIC 1: Distribution of sample respondents in the three site of the study areaSite No_ of households in each cooperative housing site(strata) Sample size Sampling technique
Site 1 80 18 Probability sampling, i.e.
Stratified and simple random Sampling
Site 2 352 78 Site 3 160 35 Total 592 131 Source: self- organized, 2018
Table 3. SEQ Table_3. * ARABIC 2 : Distribution of sample key informantsThe selected sectors No of samples Sampling methods
The town municipality office 1 Non-probability sampling, i.e. purposive sampling
The town electricity supply office 1 The town water development office 1 The town administration managers 1 Total 4 Source: self-organized, 2018
Source of dataAll necessary data required for this study were obtained from both primary and secondary sources by using different tools of data collection. Primary source of data were questionnaire with selected sample households and interview with officials of different offices. Secondary source of data were data that used to review the overall objectives of the study. Relevant documents and books concerning the issue of physical infrastructure provision in housing were the major source of secondary data. Generally, this study was employed both primary and secondary data as a source of data.
Primary data sourceThe primary data were obtained from the selected cooperative housing household headed respondents through both closed and open-ended questionnaires and from municipal office, water development office, and Ethiopia electric power corporation Kuy town, district and woreda administrator through semi-structured interview questions and researchers observation that was enhanced by a photograph.
Secondary data sourceThe study used secondary data, which were collected from different published and unpublished literatures and responsible bodies such as journals, books, internet and reports from municipality that is relevant to this study. The data that were collected through questionnaires, interview and personal observation were triangulated to ensure the accuracy and validity of the data.
Data analysis and InterpretationOnce the required data were collected from the sample respondents through questionnaires, interview and observation in this study, both qualitative and quantitative methods of data analysis were employed. The quantitative data from the collected questionnaire was edited, classified, tabulated, and analyzed based on descriptive statistics (frequency, mean and percentage) and inferential statistics especially test of proportion (Z-test) using SPSS and Microsoft Excel program. The study employed test of proportion to analysis the satisfaction of sample respondents with existing water, road and electricity supply. In this case, the proportion of satisfied and dissatisfied respondents was analyzed based on the Z-test result. Depending on the nature of data, descriptive statistical tools such as frequency table, percent, and chart were used to interpret the response out of the whole of respondents in relation to the hundred percent. The qualitative data that were collected from sample respondents through open-ended questions in the questionnaire, interview from concerned official and personal observation were logically interpreted and analyzed in text form.
Data presentationOnce the required data was collected, the researcher used table, chart, percentage, text and photograph depending on the discussion to present the analyzed data.
Data validity and Reliability
Reliability and Validity are the two most important and fundamental techniques of any research measurement producer. According to Golasfshani (2003) cited in Aziz (2015) the extent to which results are consistent over time and an accurate representation of the total population under study is referred to as reliability and if the results of a study can be produced under a similar methodology, then the research instrument is considered to be reliable. As Ayodele (2012) cited in Aziz (2015) validity is an indication of accuracy in terms of the extent to which a research conclusion corresponds with reality. With this regard, the researcher attempt to keep the validity as followed. First research questions emanated from research objectives in order to keep consistency with research objective and research questions. Second, reviewed many relevant conceptual and theoretical literatures on the problem issued to incorporate important concepts in the data gathering instruments. Third, to check the validity of the items, the questionnaire was given to the advisor. Then based on the comment, vague words and ambiguous statements were corrected and the necessary rearrangement of the questionnaire was made. Then the instrument was translated in to Amharic.
Fourth, to keep the reliability the researcher carried out a pilot survey in order to implement useful and valuable questionnaire to respondents, which was taken place before implementation of actual questionnaires. The pilot survey is important to reduce error of data. Beside, for likert scale variables the researcher conducts reliability analysis with Cronbach alpha to determine the internal consistency of items to gauge its reliability, which is 0.87. According to Nunnaly (1978), Cronbach alpha coefficient of 0.7 and above is an acceptable reliability. It shows that the questionnaire have excellent inter consistency reliability.
Oprationalization Framework Table 3. SEQ Table_3. * ARABIC 3: Oprationalization frameworkResearch Objectives Concepts Variable Source of data Method of data collection Method of data analysis
To assess the status of water, electricity and road infrastructure water supply Households benefited from water supply, Source of water , Continuity, cost, quality, maintenance, accessibility Sample respondents and water development officials Questionnaire, Observation and Interview Descriptive and narrative analysis, photography
electricity Households benefited from electric supply, source of electricity supply, regularity, service cost, Sample respondents and Ethiopia electric power Kuy town district office Questionnaire and observation Descriptive and narrative analysis, with photography
road Accessibility road, quality(construction material), maintenance service Sample respondents and municipality Questionnaire, Observation and interview Descriptive and narrative analysis, with photography
To assess the satisfaction of kuy, town cooperative housing dwellers with the existing physical infrastructure Satisfaction with water
Supply Location of facility, quality of water, continuity, Cost service, Maintenance Sample respondents Questionnaire Test of proportion(Z-test) analysis
Satisfaction with electricity supply Source of electric supply, cost service, Regular supply Sample respondents Questionnaire Test of proportion(Z-test) analysis
Satisfaction with road infrastructure Accessibility, Road quality, Maintenance, Sample respondents Questionnaire Test of proportion(Z-test) analysis
road width Explore factors that hinders adequate provision of Infrastructure Water development office ,Ethiopia electric power Kuy town district office , municipality and city administrator Interview Narrative analysis
Source; Self- organized, 2018
Limitation of the studyThe major limitation that occurred when conducting this research is that some of the respondents were reluctant to provide the required information. The researcher explained the aim of the study, where and how it will be used. Besides, he also explained that no one is quoted directly or victimized for providing such information. This reduced any suspicion and doubt. It was difficult to make interviews with some officials as they always made appointment to give information and not available on the appointment. Concerning secondary data or documents in the entire four visited offices municipality, water development office, Ethiopian electric power Kuy town district and town administrator there were no adequate documents, which were relevant to this study. The data was fragmented and very difficult to access and get the necessary information. All this problems were the major limitation of this study.
Ethical considerationA written letter from Ethiopia Civil Service University, college of urban development and engineering was obtained to the concerned body to get approval for collecting the data. During the data collection, the researcher introduced himself and carries out an introduction about the objective and purpose of the study to the sample respondents and interviewee before beginning the data collecting process. Moreover, the researcher explained the intention of the research and assured respondents that the finding of the study will not be used to cause harm them. The respondents were offered the freedom to ignore items that they did not wish to respond to and the research ensured that the respondents willingly participated in the research. Further, the researcher ensured that the respondents were not subjected to any physical or psychological harm in the process of giving information for this study. Impartiality was observed on the part of the researcher, throughout the data collection process with utmost respect for views and culture in order to establish rapport. Lastly, the researcher acknowledged all the sources read to avoid plagiarism.
CHAPTER FOURData Presentation, Analysis and InterpretationIntroductionThis chapter discusses the findings obtained from the data-collecting instrument used in the study. It discusses the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, the status of the existing physical infrastructure mainly water, electricity and road, their satisfaction on the existing physical infrastructures and the concerned official responses on factors that hinder the adequate provision these infrastructures in Amhara Regional state, in the case of Kuy town cooperative housing sites. In order to make the discussions simpler, the researcher used tables, charts and text to summarize the collective responses of the respondents in appropriate manner.
This research had a target sample size of 131 respondents from which 129 responded to the questionnaires and returned them. This made a response rate of 98.5 %, which was good to make a representative conclusion for the study. According to Magenta (2003), a response rate of 50 % is adequate for analysis and reporting, a rate of 60 % is good, and a response rate of 70 % and above is excellent. Based on this scale, the response rate for this study was excellent.
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 1: Response RateCluster Targeted Sample Size Response Percentage Composite Percentage
Site 1 18 18 100
Site 2 78 77 98.7 Site 3 35 34 97.1 Total 131 129 Source: Field survey, 2018
Back ground information of RespondentsKnowing the background information about sample population is very important to know their characteristics. With this, regard the background information of sample household head respondents presented as follows.
Distribution of respondents by sex
In the study, 129 sample household heads were participated. As shown in the pie chart 4.1, the sex composition of the respondents indicates that the majority of respondents are male; accordingly, 93(72%) of them were male whereas 36(28%) of them were females. The sex composition of the respondents implies that the data of this study is largely obtained from the male-headed households.
Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 1: Distribution of respondents by sex
Source: Field survey, 2018
Age of respondentsTable 4.2 depicts that, respondents of the age category 20-30 constitute the highest proportion ,62(48.1%) of the sample size followed by the category 31-40, that constitute 59(45.7%), 41-50, sharing 7(5.4%) and >50 sharing 1(0.8%) of respondents. This implies that, the respondents that fall under the age category ranging from 20-40 have constituted a large share 121(93.8%) of the total sample size.
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 2 : Distribution of respondents by age categoryNo Age category Frequency Percent
1 20-30 62 48.1
2 31-40 59 45.7
3 41-50 7 5.4
4 >50 1 0.8
Total 129 100
Source: Field survey, 2018
Marital status and Family sizeMarital status has to do with family size and family size, which in turn, has an impact on the consumption of physical infrastructure particularly water consumption. The data in table 4.3 reviles that, 89(69%) of respondents were married, whereas 29(22.5%), 9(7%) and 2(1.6%) of respondents were single, divorced and widowed respectively. With regarding to household size of respondents, the majority of them 81(62.8%) have 1-3 family members, while 48(37.2%) of them have 4-6 family members. The average household size of the respondent was 3.2 ranging from the lower one person to the highest family size of 6 people. With regard to household’s family size the majority 81(62.8%) of the respondents have 1-3 family members, while 48(37.2%) of them have 4-6 family members. The average household size of the respondent was 3.2 ranging from the lower one person to the highest family size of 6 people.Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 3: Distributions of respondents by marital status and family sizeMarital status Family size
Category Frequency Percentage Category Frequency Percentage
Married 89 69 1-3 81 62.8
Single 29 22.5 4-6 48 37.2
Divorced 9 7 above 6 – –
Widowed 2 1.6 Total 129 100 129 100
Source: Field survey, 2018
Educational statusAs it is shown in table 4.4, about 3(2.3%) of households are write and read, 21(16.3%) of them were attended primary and secondary education. Those who attend certificate and diploma were 35(27.1%) and the rest 70(54.3%) of sample households were attend first degree and above. This implies that, majority of the sample respondents are educated.
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 4: Distribution of respondents by educational statusNo Educational status Frequency Percentage
Illiterate – –
1 Write; read 3 2.3
2 Primary; secondary 21 16.3
3 Certificate ;diploma 35 27.1
4 First degree; above 70 54.3
Total 129 100
Source: Field survey, 2018
Employment statusSample respondents were also asked about their employment status and the result of the survey shows in pie chart 4.2, about 92(71.3%) of them were government employed, 34(26.4%) of them were engaged in private business 3(2.3%) of them were employed in non- governmental organization (NGO).This implies that, majority of the sample respondents were government employed.
Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 2: Distribution of households by employment status
Source: Field survey, 2018
Monthly income of sample respondentsMonthly income is one of the most significant factors of individuals’ living standard in general and consumption in particular. As indicated table 4.5, out of the total sample respondents, about 7(5.4%) of them were earn between 1000-2000 birr, 23(17.8%) of them were earn between 2001-3000 birr, 43(33.3%) of them were earn between 3001-4000 birr and 56(43.4%) of them were earn monthly income of above 4000 birr.
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 5: Distribution of sample respondents by monthly income No Monthly income Frequency Percentage
1 Less than 1000 – –
2 1000-2000 7 5.4
3 2001-3000 23 17.8
4 3001-4000 43 33.3
5 above 4000 56 43.4
Total 129 100
Source: Field survey, 2018
Results and DiscussionsWater supply, electricity supply and road infrastructuresThis part of the research give due attention for the status of existing water supply, electricity supply and road infrastructure in the cooperative housing sites of the study area, based on the responses of the sample respondents, concerned official and researchers personal observation during the data collection time.
Water supply in Kuy town cooperative housing sites
This section of the analysis focuses on the status of water supply provision in relation to access to tap water in reasonable distance, source of tap water, their daily consumption and interruption, maintenance, cost service and quality of water based on the collected data.
According to the general manager of water development office, Kuy town is one of the woreda administrations in East Gojjam zone in Amhara regional state were the water development office and AGIR service Ethiopia are the only water producer or suppliers of pipe water in the town. The existing water source of the town is located in Agamina water source, which is working through gravity system and Chengor boreholes through electric system. AGRI service Ethiopia in 1988 and the town, water development office in 1978 is the developers of the two water sources respectively. In line with this, the general manager of the town, water development office stated that the two water sources are design to provide water supply for not more than 6000 people during the time of construction. However, now a day the population of the town is increasing time to time and it reaches more than 10, 000 people, consequently there is an interruption of water especially in the expansion area of the town. He also stated that, cooperative housing sites are among the expansion areas of the town were the residents are depending on the existing water source of the town as source of pipe water supply. However, the existing two water sources are working more than twenty years without any additional water supply development as the demand for pipe water increases time to time.
Water source of the sample households
Cooperative housing sites are among the expansion area of the town, were the residents have access to water from the existing water sources like other parts of the town. Hence, the households in the study area get piped water from different connection system. As indicated in figure 4.3, out of the total respondents 76(59%) of them have private pipeline connection, 36(28%) of them get water from private sellers, the remaining 6(5%) and 11(8%) of them collect water from shared pipeline and public tab respectively. In other words, about 53(41%) of the sample, households do not have private pipe water connection and they depend on private sellers, shared pipeline and public tab for their water source. As UN-Habitat, (2006) stated, in urban areas standpipe or public pipe, household connection and domestic sellers are the major sources of water.
Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 3: Households source of water
Source; Field survey, 2018
Furthermore, 53(41%) of the sample households who are using water from private sellers, shared pipeline and public tab, were also asked why they don’t have access to private pipe water connection and they replied due to different reasons. About 13(24.5%) of them are due to absence of water pipe line, 13(24.5%) of them are due to financial problems and the majority 27(50.9%) of them are due to bureaucratic bottleneck. This implies bureaucratic bottleneck is the main problem to get private pipe water connection in Kuy town cooperative housing site.
In addition, 53(41%) of the households who were collect water from private sellers, shared pipe line and public tab were also asked about the distance traveled to fetch water. Accordingly, about 3(5.6%) of them are travel less than 100m distance to fetch water, 21(39.6%) of them are travel between 100m-200m distance and the majority 29(54.7%) of the are travel more than 200m distance to fetch water, which is more than the standard distance recommended by UN-Habitat. In line with this, during the field observation the researcher also observe the location of public tab from the cooperative housing sites, which is more than 500m away from the cooperative housing sites. As a result, majority of the respondents who do not have private pipe water connection used private sellers as a source of pipe water.
Table 4.6 shows households source of water across the three cooperative housing sites in the study area, out of the total 18 households from site one cooperative housing, about 13(72.2%) of them have private pipe water connection, whereas 2(11.1%) and 3(16.6%) of respondents, get water from shared pipeline and purchase from private sellers respectively. Out of the total 77 households of site two cooperative housing, about 56(72.5%) of them have private pipe water connection, 4(5.2%) of them get water from public tab, the remaining 1(1.3%) and 16(20.8%) of respondents collect water from shared pipeline and purchase from private sellers respectively. Out of the total 34 households of site three cooperative housing about 7(20.6%) of them have private pipe water connection, 17(50%) of them were collect water from private sellers, the remaining 3(8.8%) and 7(20.6%) of respondents get water from public tab and shared pipeline respectively. In other words 13(72.2%), 56(72.5%) and only 7(20.6%) of respondents of site 1, site 2 and site 3 cooperative housing have private pipe water connection respectively. The remaining 5(28.8%), 21(22.5%) and 27(79.4%) of respondents of site 1, site 2 and site 3 cooperative housing do not have private pipe water connection, rather they collect water from public tab, shared pipeline and from private sellers.
This implies that, there is a variation in households source of water across the three cooperative housing sites especially in site 3 cooperative housing the half(50%) of households are depend on private sellers as source of water, but site 2 and site 1 has almost equal number of respondents have private pipe water connection.
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 6: Households source of water across the three cooperative housing sitesSite category Respondents source of water Total
Private pipe line in the compound Public tab Shared pipeline purchase from private sellers Frequency % Frequency % Frequency % Frequency % Frequency %
Site 1 13 72.2 – – 2 11.1 3 16.6 18 100
Site 2 56 72.5 4 5.2 1 1.3 16 20.8 77 100
Site 3 7 20.6 7 20.6 3 8.8 17 50 34 100
Total 76 58.9 11 8.5 6 4.7 36 27.9 129 100
Source: Field survey, 2018
Water accessibility refers to an adequate amount of water, which needs to satisfy metabolic hygienic and domestic requirements at least 20 liters per person per day and not more than 200 meters away from residence (UN -Habitat, 2003). Accordingly, the data in table 4.7 reviles that, the average liter per day per person, water consumption level of households who have access to private pipeline, shared pipeline; public tab and purchase from private sellers are 15.6, 15.2, 14.6, and 13.2 liters per day per person respectively. This implies that, the water consumption levels of respondents were varying from one source of water to other source of water. Further, the average water consumption of sample respondents is 14.8 liter per day per person, which is less than 20 liter per day per person, recommended by UN-Habitat. This implies that the water consumption amount of the sample households in the study area is low as compared to international standards.
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 7: Average water consumption level of the respondentsNo Source of water Frequency Percentage Average family size Total water collected per day in liter Average consumption in l/p/d
1 Private pipeline 76 58.9 243 3800 15.6
2 Shared pipeline 6 4.7 19 290 15.2
3 Public tab 11 8.5 35 510 14.6
4 Purchase privately sellers 36 27.9 115 1520 13.2
Total 129 100 412 6120 14.8
Source: Field survey, 2018
Table 4.8 shows that the monthly expenditure of households they do not have private or shared pipe water connection for water service. The data reviles that, out of 11 households who have access to public tab water sources, the largest number 7(63.6%) pay between 20 birr to 40 birr per month for water consumption, the remaining 4(36.4%) pay between 41 birr to 60 birr in month for water consumption.
When we see the monthly water consumption expenditure of those households who get water from private sellers, out of 36 households, the largest portion 15(41.7%) of them pay between 41 to 60 birr per month, 10(27.8%) pay between 61 to 80 birr per month, 5(13.9%) of them pay between 81 to 100 birr per month. The remaining 4 (11.1%) and 2 (5.6%) of them pay between 20 to 40 birr and above 100 birr per month respectively. It indicated that the monthly expenditure of sample households is different in different water sources. With the same token the average monthly water consumption expenditure of these households who get water from public tab and from private sellers are 44 and 68 birr respectively. In line with this, the interview data from water development office indicated that the average monthly water consumption expenditure of households who have private pipe water connection in the town is 30 birr per month.
From the above, one can easily compeer how the water consumption expenditures of the sample households are differing from one water source to another. Beside, the average monthly water consumption of these households who get water from private sellers is two times greater than the average monthly water consumption expenditure of households who have private pipe water connection what is 30 birr per month. In other words, the average water consumption cost of households who get water from private sellers is very high when we compeer with private pipe water connection users and public tab users. Public health protection,(2000) also stated that households with the lowest level of access to safe water supply frequently, pay more from their water than households connected to piped water system. This implies that, households who have no private pipe water connection faced many problems. In one hand they pay high cost for water consumption and in the other hand their water consumption level is low when we compeer with households who have private pipe water connection.
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 8: Monthly payments for water service by respondents from different sourcesNo Monthly cost in birr Respondents source of tap water Average monthly cost in birr across the two water source
Public tab Purchase from private sellers Public tab Purchase from private sellers
Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage 1 20-40 7 63.6 4 11.1
2 41-60 4 36.4 15 41.7 3 61-80 – – 10 27.8 4 81-100 – – 5 13.9 5 ;100 – – 2 5.6 Total 11 100 36 100 Source: Field survey, 2018
Figure 4.4 shows the frequency of water supply interruption in the study area, about 4(3.1%) of them reported that water is interrupted always, the majority 74(57.4%) of them reported the interruption of water is occurred more often and 51(39.5%) of them reported that the interruption of water is occurred sometimes. With the same token, some of the respondents reported that the interruption is serious that occur more than a day in a week. In addition, the interview data from water development office reviles that, due to an increasing in the demand for water and the absence of additional water sources for the expansion areas, there is the problem of water supply interruption in the town including cooperative housing sites. Thus, ensuring water interruption is one of the challenges that the residents of cooperative housing site are facing in their day-to-day activity. As WHO,(2008) stated, the interruptions of drinking water supply either through intermittent source or from engineering inefficiencies are a major determinant of access to quality drinking water, this interruption cause contamination as well as they forced the residents to use low volume water.
Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 4: Frequency of water supply interruptions
Source: Field survey, 2018
Besides, the study wants to see the situation of water supply interruption across the three cooperative housing sites of the study area. The data reviles that, out of the total 18 sample households in site1 cooperative housing, about 11(61.1%) of them replied water is interrupted more often, 6(33.3%) of them replied sometimes and 1(5.6%) of them replied that water is interrupted always. On the other hand out of the total 77 sample households of site 2 cooperative housing, about 44(57.1%) of them reported water is interrupted more often, 32(41.6%) of them replied sometimes and 1(1.3%) of them replied always. Whereas out of the total 34 sample households of site 3 cooperative housing about 19(55.9%) of them replied water is interrupted more often, 13(38.2%) of them replied sometimes and the remaining 2(5.9%) of them replied that water is always interrupted. This implies that, the interruption of water across the three cooperative housing sites of the town is occurring almost in the same situation.
Beside, the households were also asked about the cause of water interruption, about 76(58.9%) of them replied that shortage of water production is the main cause of water interruption, 43(33.3 %) of the replied the problem of water pipeline is the cause of water interruption. Next to this,8(6.2%) and 2(1.6%)of them replied that both the problem of water pipeline and shortage of water production and the problems of concerned officials are the cause of water supply interruption in the area respectively. In line with this the interview data from water development office indicates that water is interrupted mainly due to shortage of water production but in some cases the problem of water pipeline cause the interruption of water in the area. Therefore, from this one can understand that the main cause of water interruption is shortage of water production and the second one is problems of water pipeline.
Figure 4.5 indicates the responses of concerned officials when water pipeline were physically damage. In this case the respondents were 82(76 households that have private pipe water connection and 6 households that collect water from shared pipeline)households, out of this, about 43(52%) of them replied that when water pipeline were damage the responses of concerned officials were slow and complete i.e. that is after delaying at least three days. The remaining 39(48%) of them replied that the response were fast and complete within one day. In line with this the interview data from water development office reviles that, due to lack of skilled man-power and material the maintenance services is not fast as the customer’s request time, it may delay two- three days depending on the nature of the problem. This indicates that providing maintenance service in a required time when water pipe line were physically damage is another problem in the area in most cases.
Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 5: Responses of concerned officials when water pipelines were physically damage
Source: Field survey, 2018
The quality of water is the heart of the community health it can be checked through laboratorial test. Hence, the sample respondents were asked their perception about the quality of water but sample test is not included in this study because it needs laboratory examination. Accordingly, the data in table 4.9 indicated that, out of the total respondents, about 52(40.3%) of them replied that the quality of water in the area is very good, 49(38.0%) of them replied that the quality of water is good, the remaining 28(21.7%) of the replied that the quality of water in the study area is satisfactory. This implies that the quality of water is not the problems of the study area rather accessing potable water in reasonable distance for all and interruption of water supply become the major problems of the study area as indicated the data below figure 4.3 and at figure 4.4 respectively.
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 9: Households perception about the quality of waterNo Households perception about the quality of water Frequency Percentage
1 Satisfactory 28 21.7
2 Good 49 38
3 Very good 52 40.3
Total 129 100
Source: Field survey, 2018
Electricity supply in Kuy town cooperative housing sitesElectricity supply
Electricity supply or power infrastructure refers to the provision of electricity to the population. Providing electricity supply for any community is very necessary for the community itself or the all-round development of any nation (Opeyemi et al., 2014). Accordingly, the data in table 4.10 reviles that, out of the total sample households, about 97( 75.2%) of the them get access to electricity, but all of them were access shared electric meter line from the neighboring residential areas, on the other hand 32(24.8%)of them have no access to electricity. This implies that, majority of respondents have access to get electricity, but accessing private electricity supply is the major problems of the area.
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 10: Availability of Electricity
No Item Variables Frequency Percentage
1 Do you have access to electricity supply yes 97 75.2
no 32 24.8
Total 129 100
2 If your answer is yes for question number one what is your source of electricity supply Private electric supply – –
shared electric supply 97 100
Total 97 100
Source: Field survey, 2018
In addition, the result in study shows availability of electricity across the three cooperative housing sites of the study area. With this regard, out the total 18 sample households of site 1 cooperative housing 15(83.3%) of them have access to electricity supply from shared meter line source but the remaining 3(16.7%) of them have no access to electricity supply. On the other hand, out of the total 77 sample households of site 2, about 65(83.3%) of them has access to electricity in the form of shared and 12(15.6%) of them have no accesses to electricity supply. Whereas out of the total 34 sample households of site 3, about 17(50%) of them have access to electricity supply in the form of shared and 17(50%) of them have no access to electricity supply. This implies there is variation in accessing electricity supply across the three cooperative housing sites especially in site 3, only half of the sample households have access to electricity supply.
Besides, 129 sample households were also asked about their request time to get access to private electricity power supply. About 96(94.4%) of them replied that they were asked the concerned official in different time, from which 37(38.5%) of them are request before one year, 28(29.2%) of them are requested before two years, 12(12.5%) of them are requested before three years. The remaining 3(3.1%),12(12.5%),3(3.1%) and 1(1.0%) of them are asked before nine month, six month, four month and three month respectively. This implies that the largest portion 65( 67.7%) of the respondents were requested electric supply installation in the area before one year and above but still there is no electric supply installations in the area.
Further, 96(94.4%) of the respondents who request electric power supply were also asked about the responses of the concerned officials during the request time. About 39(40.6%) of them replied that, absence of electric line, 34(35.4) of them replied that budget problem, 21(12.9%) of them replied that bureaucratic bottleneck and the remaining 1(1.0%) and 1(1.0%) of them replied that both budget problem and absence of electric line and no response respectively. From this, one can understand that absence of electric line and budget problem are the main problems that hinder the provision of electricity supply in the area. In line with this, the interview data from Ethiopia electric power corporation, Kuy town district shows that, due to the absence of electricity equipments like that of transformer, electric pole and even electric wires in the district there is no installation of electricity in the cooperative housing site of the town. However, the residents by itself access electricity supply from the households who have private electricity supply connection in the neighboring residential areas in the form of rent per month.
Table 4.11 indicates the purpose of electricity in the sample households, out of the total 97 households who have access to get electricity in a shared mater, the largest portion 88(90.7%) of them use electricity for lighting only and the remaining 9(9.3%) of them use electricity for both lighting and cooking. According to Opeyemi et.al, (2014) electric power is important in the day-to-day activity of individuals since it required to households equipment like that of lighting, television, washing machines and even for cooking purpose. However, that data implies that, the majority of sampled households are use electricity for lighting purpose only.
Beside, 88(90.7%) of the households who use electricity only for lighting purpose were also asked about why they use electricity only for lighting purpose. They reported that, due to the source of electricity is shared meter from households who have private connection in the form of rent per month, as the purpose of electricity increases the cost for electric consumption also increase highly.
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 11: The purpose of electricity for the sample respondents No Purpose of electricity Frequency Percentage
1 Lighting 88 90.7
2 Lighting and cooking 9 9.3
3 Other – –
Total 97 100
Source: Field survey, 2018
Households monthly expenditure for electricity supply
Table 4.12 reviles that, out of the total 97 sample households, who have access to electricity supply the largest portion 69(71.1%) pay between 40 to 60 birr per month for electricity consumption, 17(17.5%) of them pay between 61 to 80 birr, 6(6.2%) of them pay between 81 to 100 birr. The remaining 4(4.1%) and 1(1.0%) of them pay between 100 to 120 birr and above 120 birr per month for electricity consumption respectively. It indicated that the monthly expenditure of households for electricity consumption is different from one household to another household.
Beside, the data in table 4.12 also reviles that, the average monthly expenditures of the sample households for electricity consumption is 64.59 birr per month. In line with this, the interview data from Ethiopian electric power corporation, Kuy town district indicated that the average monthly expenditure of households who have private electricity supply in the town is 45 birr per month. This implies that, the average monthly expenditure of households who have access to electricity from shared source is much greater than households who have access to private electricity supply. From the above one can easily understand that households who have no access to private electricity supply faced many problems. In one hand, they pay higher cost for electricity consumption in the other hand their electricity consumption level is low when we compeer with households who have private electricity supply as shown in table 4.11 and table 4.12.
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 12: Monthly payments for electricity service by respondents from shared source
No Monthly payment for electricity service Frequency Percentage Average monthly payment for electricity service
1 40-60 69 71.1
2 61-80 17 17.5
3 81-100 6 6.2 64.59
4 101-120 4 4.1
5 >120 1 1
Total 97 100
Source: Field survey, 2018
Electricity supply interruption
Figure 4.6 shows the frequency of electricity power interruption in the sample households. Out of the total 97 households who have access to electricity supply, the largest portion 62(63.9%) of them replied more than one day per week, 12(12.4%) of them replied that electricity supply is interrupted between 21-24 hr per week, (4.1%) of them replied that electricity supply is interrupted between16-21hr per month. The remaining 3(3.1%), 8(8.1%) and 8(8.1%) of the respondents replied that electricity supply is interrupted between 11-15hr, 5-10hr and <5hr per week respectively. This implies there is a problem of electric power interruption in the study area. Regular supply of electricity is necessary for the proper functioning of any community or any nation (Opeyemi et al., 2014). The reverse is true in kuy town cooperative housing site were the regular supply of electricity supply is the main problems that face the residents of the area as shown table 4.12. It affects the day-to-day activity of the residents. Therefore, one can easily understand that electric power interruption is one of the major problems that faced the residents of cooperative housing sites in the town in addition to the absence of formal electric power supply distribution in the area.
Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 6: Electricity power interruption per week
Source: Field survey, 2018
In addition, the study wants to analyze the interruption of electricity across the three cooperative housing sites of the study area. Accordingly, out of the total 15 sample respondents of site 1 cooperative housing site, who have access to electricity supply, about 11 (73.3%) of them replied that electricity is interrupted more than one day, about 2(6.7%) of them replied between 5-10hr, 1(6.7%) and 1(6.7%) of them replied between 11-15hr and 21-24hr per week respectively. On the other hand, out of the total 65 sample households of site 2 cooperative housing who have electricity supply about 40(61.5%) of them replied more than one day per week ,8(12.3%) of them replied between 21-24hr, 6(9.2%) of them replied <5hr, 6(9.2%) of them replied between 5-10 hr. The remaining 3(4.6%) and 2(3.1%) of them replied between16-20hr and 11-15hr per week respectively. Out of the total 17 sample households of site 3 cooperative housing who have access to electricity about 11(64.7%) of them replied more than one day, 3(17.6%) of them replied between 21-24hr, the remaining 2(11.8%) and 1(5.9%) of them replied that electricity is interrupted between <5hr and between 16-20 hr per week respectively. In other word, more than 60% of sample respondents in each site of cooperative housing responded that the electricity power is interrupting more than a day in a week. This implies that there is no a huge gap in electric power interruption across the three cooperative housing sites of the study area.
Table 4.13 shows causes of electricity supply interruption based on the respondents responses. Accordingly, the data reviles that, out the total 97 households, who have access to shared electricity supply, the largest portion 58(59.8%) of them believed that problems of electric line, 19(19.6%) of them replied that shortage of power, 14(14.4%) of them replied both problems of electric line and shortage of power. The remaining 1(1.0%), 1(1.0%), 3(3.1%) and 1(1.0%) of them replied problems of electric line and shortage of skilled labor, problems of concerned officials and unknown respectively.
In line with this, the interview data from Ethiopia electric power corporation Kuy town, district shows that, there is no formal electric power supply in the cooperative housing sites of the town. As a result, expressing the cause as well as the frequency of electricity interruption is difficult but as a town, the main cause for the interruption of electricity power is both sub standard electric equipments i.e. poles, wires and shortage of power.
Therefore, from this one can easily understand that the main cause of electric supply interruption is the problem of electric line or equipments and the second one is shortage of power as a cause of electricity supply interruption. Aziz, (2015) in his finding also stated that in most cases the interruption of electricity supply is occur due to shortage of power and low standard of electric equipments such as pole, wires and fuses.
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 13: Cause of electricity supply interruptionNo Cause of electricity interruption Frequency Percentage
1 Problems of electric line 58 59.8
2 Shortage of power 19 19.6
3 Problems of electric line& shortage of power 14 14.4
4 Problems of electric line& shortage of skilled man power 1 1.0
5 Shortage of skilled man power 1 1.0
6 Problems of concerned officials 3 3.1
7 Unknown 1 1.0
Total 97 100
Source: Field survey, 2018
Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 7: The situation of shared meter electric lines in cooperative housing sites.
Source: Field observation, 2018
Households alternative source of lighting
Table 4.14 shows the respondents source of lighting that do not have electricity supply. From the total 32 respondents who do not have access to electricity, about 17(53.1%) of them replied they used kerosene as a source of lighting, 11(34.4%) of them replied they use solar energy as source of lighting and the remaining 4(12.5%) of them replied they use portable battery as source of lighting. This implies that, the majority of respondents who have no access to electricity use kerosene as a source of lighting.
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 14: Respondents source of light that do not have access to electricityNo Source of light Frequency Percentage
1 Solar energy 11 34.4
2 Potable battery 4 12.5
3 Kerosene 17 53.1
Total 32 100
Source: Field survey, 2018
Road infrastructure in Kuy town cooperative housing
Figure 4.8 shows the types of road that the sample respondents were access to their house. Out of the total 129 sample households 78(60.5%) of them replied that they access gravel road, 43(33.3%) of them replied earth road and the remaining 8(6.2%) of them replied that they access informal road (road which is not formal road). In line with this, the interview data from municipality office shows that, the cooperative housing sites are the newly developed residential area with the planned structure. As a result, there is no problem of road access in terms of opening because the whole area in new planned settlement realized according to the city’s master plan. However, except the main road, most of the internal access roads and collector roads are not gravel. Even some parts of collector road were covered with gravel in 2018 by the community participation in a limited quality. Due to this, some of the residents may use informal road if it is more accessible to their house. Therefore, one can easily understand that there is problem of road infrastructure in cooperative housing is town.
Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 8: Types of road that accessed by the sample respondents
Source: Field survey, 2018
Beside, 121(93.6%) of sample respondents who access gravel and earth road were also asked about the drainage system of the road, all 121(100%) of sample households who have access to earth and gravel road replied that there is no drainage system along the road. In addition, the observation data shows that, there is no drainage system along roads in cooperative housing sites of the town during the data collection time. This implies that absence of drainage system is one of the problems that the residents of cooperative housing faced. According to Zakout, (2006) when a drainage system were not adequately provide in urban areas, the paved roads and built environment, decrease the surface area of storm water absorption; there is little opportunity for rainwater to penetrate into the ground. Due to this, there is a speed up rate of storm water runoff, causing flooding, and erosion, which costs very much to be, treated and losses of property.
Table 4.15 indicates the perception of sample households about the quality or state of road in their residence. Accordingly, out of the total respondents, only 55(42.8%) of them replied that the state of access road is good and satisfactory and the remaining 74(57.2%) of them replied the state of the access road is poor. This implies that, the largest portion 74(57.3%) of the sample households replied the state of road in their settlement is not good. In addition, the sample respondent stated that the road is not all weathered; it is difficult to move from one area to other area during the summer season. Further, the research also observe that, the state of road in cooperative housing sites is not in a good condition due to different problems such as absence of drainage system and Low standard construction material. Cotton and Tayler, (2000) also stated that, if access road is not in a good condition it is difficult for inhabitants to move freely from their home to other neighboring areas.
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 15: Respondent’s perception on the sate of access road
No State of road Frequency Percentage
1 Very poor 31 24
2 Poor 43 33.2
3 Satisfactory 36 27.9
4 Good 19 14.9
Total 129 100
Source: Field survey, 2018
-9525023495Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 9: Earth roads in poor condition Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 10: Gravel road in a poor condition
Table 4.16 indicated that out of the total 74 sample respondents who replied the state of road is poor and very poor, about 40(54%) of them responded the state of road is not good due to inadequate provision, 13(17.6%) of them responded absence of maintenance, 13(17.6%) of them replied both inadequate provision and absence of maintenance. The remaining 5(6.8%) and 3(4.1%) of them replied that absence of continues maintenance and absence of drainage system respectively. In line with this, the interview data from municipality office indicated that, the road in cooperative housing sites of the town is not in a good condition because it lacks maintenance and drainage system due to financial problem. From this, one can easily understand that that absence of maintenance, inadequate provision and absence of drainage system are the problem that makes the state of road is poor in cooperative housing sites of the study area.
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 16: Respondent’s reason for poor and very poor state of access roadNo Respondents reason Frequency Percentage
1 Absence of any maintenance 13 17.6
2 Absence of continues maintenance 5 6.8
3 Inadequate provision 40 54.1
4 Absence of drainage system 3 4.1
5 Inadequate provision ; absence of any maintenance 13 17.6
Total 74 100
Source: Field survey, 2018
Table 4.17 shows the distance of sample respondent’s house from the main road and the types of road accessed by respondents. From the total 53(41.1%) of sample respondents who locate < 0.5 km from the main road about 3(5.7%) of them access earth road, 50(94.3%) of them access gravel road. From the total 30(23.3%) of sample respondents who locate between 0.5-1km distance from the main road, about 4(13.3%) of them access earth road and 26(86.7%) of them access gravel road. On the other hand from the total 17(13.2%) of sample households who locate 2-3km distance from the main road, 6(35.3%) of them access informal road, 11(64.7%) of them access earth road. From the total 5(3.9%) of sample respondents 2(40%) of them access informal road and the remaining 3 (60%) of them have access to earth road. This implies that, sample households that locate up to 2km from the main road have access to gravel and earth road where as sample households that locate above 2km distance from the main road have access to earth and informal road. Therefore, one can easily understand that as distance from the main road increases the quality of road is decrease in the study area.
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 17: Distance from the main road and types of access road Distance from the main road Road that accessed by the respondents Total
No formal road Earth Gravel Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage Frequency Percentage < 0.5 km – – 3 5.7 50 94.3 53
0.5-1km – – 4 13.3 26 86.7 30
1-2km 1 4.2 21 87.5 2 8.3 24
2-3km 6 35.3 11 64.7 – 17
above 3km 2 40 3 60 – 5
Total 9 7.0 42 32.6 78 60.5 129
Source: Field survey, 2018
Dwellers satisfaction with existing water, electricity and road infrastructureThis part of the research focuses on dwellers satisfaction with the existing water supply, electricity supply and access road. For this research dwellers satisfaction refers to emotional response to a person about the existing water supply, electricity supply and road in the area; the positive or the negative feeling that residents have for the existing infrastructure. The study employed test of proportion (Z-test) to analysis the satisfaction of respondents with the existing infrastructure.
Satisfaction with water supply
Location of water pipe line, quality of water, cost service for water consumption, continuity of water supply and maintenance service are used as an attribute of water supply to measure the satisfaction of cooperative housing dwellers’ with existing water supply. Accordingly, table 4.18 depicts the, vast majority (69.8%) ; (89.2%) of respondents indicated that, they are satisfied with the location of water pipeline and quality of water respectively. Whereas vast majority (77.5%) ; (64.3%) of respondents indicated that they are dissatisfied with cost service and continuity of water supply respectively. However, the data also indicates that the satisfaction of respondents with maintenance is on average, 50.4% of them were satisfied and 41.1% of them were dissatisfied with overall water supply.
This implies that high cost service and interruption of water is the major problem of the area in water supply that makes the household dissatisfied.
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 18: Respondents satisfaction with water supplyNo Item VS
a+b versus d+e
1 Location of water pipeline 46(35.7%) 44(34.1%) – 31(24.0%) 8(6.2%) 4.182
2 Quality of water 29(22.5%) 86(66.7% 6(4.7%) 6(4.7%) 2(1.6%) 6.154
3 Cost of service – 22(17.1%) 7(5.4%) 56(43.4%) 44(34.1) -5.438
4 Maintenance 5(3.9%) 36(27.9%) 44(34.1%) 34(26.4%) 10(7.8%) 0.235
5 Continuity – 35(27.1%) 11(8.5%) 79(61.2%) 4(3.1%) -3.699
6 Overall water supply 3(2.3%) 62(48.1%) 11(8.5%) 48(37.2%) 5(3.9%) 1.007
Note: VS= Very satisfied, S= Satisfied, D= Dissatisfied and VD= Very dissatisfied
Source: Field survey, 2018
Satisfaction with electric power supply
Table 4.19 shows the satisfaction of sampled respondents with the different attributes of electricity supply. Accordingly, out of the total 97 sample respondents who have access to electricity supply, vast majority (97%, 93.9%), 70.1% and 69%) of respondents indicated that they were dissatisfied with the each attributes as well as the overall electric supply. This implies that there is a problem of electric power supply in the study area.
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 19: Respondents satisfaction with electricity supplyNo Item VS
a+b versus d+e
1 Source of electricity – 17(17.5%) 12(12.4%) 36(37.1%) 32(33%) -3.952
2 Regularity – 2(2.1%) 1(1%) 60(61.9%) 34(35.1%) -6.106
3 Cost service – 16(16.5%) 14(14.4%) 40(41.2%) 27(27.8%) -3.834
4 Overall electric power supply – 3(3.1%) 3(3.1%) 57(58.8%) 34(35.1%) -5.407
Note: VS= Very satisfied, S= satisfied, D= Dissatisfied and VD=Very dissatisfied
Source: Field survey, 2018
Satisfaction with road infrastructure
The study accessibility, quality, widths of road and maintenance service are an attributes of road infrastructure to measure the sample respondent’s level of satisfaction with road infrastructure. Table 4.20 indicates the satisfaction of respondents with road infrastructure attributes, out of the total sample respondents, vast majority (70.1%, 79.8% and 60.4%) of them are dissatisfied with quality of road, maintenance service and overall road infrastructure respectively. However, the data depicts that; vast majority (69.8%) of respondents is satisfied with road width. It also reviles that, the satisfaction of respondents with accessibility of road is on average.
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 20: Respondents satisfaction with road infrastructure
No Item VS
a+b versus d+e
1 Accessibility of road 4(3.1%) 60(46.5%) 10(7.8%) 30(23.3%) 25(19.4%) 0.752
2 Road quality – 32(24.8%) 6(4.7%) 56(43.4%) 35(27.1%) -4.514
3 Road width 1(0.8%) 89(69%) 6(4.7%) 11(8.5%) 22(17.1%) 4.399
4 Maintenance – 13(10.1%) 13(10.1%) 71(55%) 32(24.8%) -4.346
5 Overall road infrastructure – 44(34.1%) 7(5.4%) 55(42.6%) 23(17.8%) -2.790
Note: VS= Very satisfied, S= satisfied, D= Dissatisfied and HD= Very dissatisfied
Source: Field survey, 2018
Overall satisfaction with water, electricity and road infrastructure
This part of analysis focuses on measuring the sample respondent’s overall satisfaction with general water supply, electric power supply and road infrastructure in the study area. Table 4.21 depicts the overall satisfaction of sample respondents with water, electricity and road infrastructure. The data shows that vast majority (65.9%) of respondents reported that they were dissatisfied with overall existing water, electricity and road infrastructure in the area. This implies that there is the problem of road, water and electricity infrastructure in the area.Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 21: Overall satisfactions with water, electricity and road infrastructureItem
a+b versus d+e
Overall water, electricity and road infrastructure – 29(22.5%) 15(11.6%) 70(54.3%) 15(11.6%) -4.055
Note: VS= Very satisfied, S= satisfied, D= Dissatisfied and VD= Very dissatisfied
Source: Field survey, 2018
Factors that hinder adequate provisions of physical infrastructure
In order to explore factors that hinder the provision of physical infrastructure, the researcher were also employed interview with concerned officials of Kuy town municipality, water development office, Ethiopian electric power corporation Kuy town district and town administrators using open-ended question as a guide. The following section presents the result of the interviews in a narrative form.
Interview from Kuy town, water development office
The interview was held with the general manager of Kuy town, water development office. As the manager of water development office stated that, providing sufficient and safe drinking water supply for the residents of the town is the main duty and responsibility of the office including expanding water supply distribution lines and providing maintenance service.
According to him cooperative housing sites are among the newly developed residential areas of town were the residents are supplied pipe water from the existing two water sources like other part of the town. Agamina and Chengor water sources are the only water-supplied sources of the town; which constructed before 25 years ago to provide pipe water for 6144 people but now a day the population of the town is increasing time to time and it reaches more than 10,000 people who use water. It results continuous interruption of water in the town. The data from questionnaire also shows that there is a problem of water supply interruption in the area.
The general manager stated that, there is the problem of pipe water supply in the cooperative housing sites of the town, only 60-70 % of the residents in cooperative housing have access to private pipe water connections with the help of World Bank fund. The remaining 30-40 % of the resident is access water through purchasing from nearby private sellers or from public tab that locate in the central part of the city due to the absence of main distribution line along the newly developed cooperative housing sites. As the area is newly developed, it needs its own main distribution line that connect with the existing water supply source and the expansion of this distribution line requires a huge amount of budget that cannot be afford only by the water development office but it needs coordination and support with other stakeholders. In line with this, the data from the sample respondents also shows that only 59% of them have private water connection the remaining 41% of the households depends on other sources of water.
He also mentioned that, beside financial problem the issue of coordination among other stalk holders is the main challenges that affect the expansion of pipe water supply in the area. As the provision of physical infrastructure demands a greater coordination, the problem of coordination with other concerned bodies were the major problem in the area. There is no coordination activity in providing basic physical infrastructure and services to the newly developed cooperative housing residential areas. Every organization is focuses on its own operation rather than cooperating to provide this basic infrastructure such as water and electricity supply. In addition, the manger also confirmed that the town administrator did not provide support to water development office especial in allocating budget for expanding the distribution of water pipe line in the newly developed residential areas including cooperative housing sites. They are responsible for allocating budget for any organization depending on the activity they perform but the reality is not in this way.
Finally, the manager stated that in order to improve the provision of water supply in the newly developed areas including cooperative housing sites, town administrator should give priority in allocating budget for water development than other infrastructures and active community participation is required.
Interview from Ethiopia electric power corporation, Kuy town district
Interview was held with the representative manager of Ethiopia electric power corporation, Kuy town district. As the representative manager of the district stated that, expanding transmission and distribution lines to provide electric power supply for the residents of Kuy town and the surrounding rural kebeles and providing maintenance service is the main duty and responsibility of the district. According to him, even if the district has the above duties and responsibility, still there is no electric power supply installation in cooperative housing sites. As a result, many residents of cooperative housing sites have access to electric power supply in the form of shared with the nearby residents who have access to private electricity supply and the remaining residents may use other alternative source of lighting. In line with this, the data from the sample respondents also indicated that there is no formal installation of electric power but 97(75.2%) of them have access to electricity in the form of shared from the nearby residential area.
He stated that, in order to make any electric power installation in a given settlement, electric power installation equipments such as transformer, pole and even electric wires should be available. The reverse is true in Ethiopian electric power corporation in Kuy town district. There is no any installation equipment in the district. Providing any necessary installation equipment is the duty and responsibility of both federal and regional offices but they are unresponsive to provide the required installation equipments. According to him, there is the problem of bureaucratic bottleneck that highly manifest at regional and federal electric power corporation and it affect the activity of the woreda districts. In line with this, the data from the sample households also shows that, from the total respondents that request electric power installation 76% of the believed that absence of electric power equipment is the problem that hinder the provision of electricity in the area. The interviewee also mentioned that, in addition to the problem of electric power installation equipments, shortage of skilled man is also one of the factors that hinder the provision of electricity supply in the cooperative housing sites of the town. Any process during the installation as well as the expansion of distribution line requires skilled labor.
Finally, the representative manager of the district stated that without the help of federal and regional electric power corporation it is difficult to provide electricity supply in the cooperative housing sites of the town. In addition, the town administrator should also make a big effort especially in communicating with the higher officials concerning electric power installation equipments, other ways the problem is continuing in such away.
Interview from Kuy town municipality
Interview was held with the general manager of Kuy town municipality concerning with the duty and responsibility of the office in relation to road infrastructure provision. According to him, designing and constructing of local and collector roads and drainage, coordinating and directing of rehabilitation, maintenance, and schedule for implementing of construction projects are the main duty and responsibility of municipality in relation to road infrastructure.
The general manager stated that there is the problem of infrastructure service like electricity, road and drainage system in the town and in the expansion areas including cooperative housing sites. When the land is delivering for cooperative housing development, the municipality also prepared a plan for both the local and collector road that connect the settlement with the existing one. As a result, there is no problem of road access in terms of opening because the whole area in new planned settlement realized according to the plan. However, except the main road, most of the internal access roads and collector roads are not gravel. Even some parts of collector road were covered with gravel in 2018 by the community participation in a limited quality; in this case, he cannot quantify the exact length of road, which was covered by gravel due to the absence of data.
Due to the problem of budget, the municipality is unable to upgrade the remaining earth roads with gravel one. As a result, some part of the road is not all weathered and it is difficult to move from one area to the other without difficulties during the rainy season. Infrastructure provision by its nature requires a huge amount of budget and the municipality is unable to meet this huge amount of budget by collecting tax from the customers because the amount of tax collected from the customer is much less that the expenditure that needed for infrastructure development. It needs support from the community, town administration and zone administrations for the development of basic infrastructure in the newly developed residential areas.
The manager also mentioned that the problem is not only the types of road but the absence of drainage system along the road is a critical problem in the area. It is obvious that drainage is an accompanying infrastructure element to road. However, it is essential to both the security of the settlement’s residents as well as to the road infrastructure itself. Even if a settlement has a full road net work but if it does not have any drainage system, it is un-questionable that the age of the road network would be short. When we see the situation of drainage in the study area, it has no drainage system at all, which constructed along the collector as well as the local roads in the area. In line with this data from observation and sample respondents also shows that there is no drainage system in the area. However, the municipality has a plan to construct drainage system in the future through community participation.
Finally, he stated that, lack of coordination between infrastructure provision organizations is also another problem next to budget that hinders adequate provision of infrastructure. Coordination is an important key enabler for the success of infrastructural provision since there are a large number of interdependent participants, different infrastructure agencies, involved in the process of infrastructure provision. The practice is the reveres there is no coordinating activities in the development of basic infrastructure especially with water development office and electric power supply office.
Interview with Kuy town administrator
Interview was held with representative administrator of the town concerning water, electricity and road infrastructure in the cooperative housing area of the town. According to him, the provision of basic infrastructure including water supply, electricity and access road play major role in the social and economic development of the community. However, the provision of this basic infrastructure in cooperative housing areas is not adequate especial electric power supply and road are more critical. In relation to water supply, most of the residents have get access to private pipeline water connection with the help of World Bank fund. This does not mean there is on a problem of water supply in the area there are also residents who have no access to private water pipeline connection rather they access from public tab and through purchasing from private sellers due to the absence of main distribution line in the area because of financial problem.
In addition to this, he also mentioned that there is no electric power supply installation in cooperative housing sites of the town. However, most of the residents of the area have access to electric power supply from the nearby residential areas in the form of rent per month per am pare. In order to solve this problem the town administrator is always asking the regional electric power corporations office about the issue of electric power supply in the area but still due to unknown reason, the problem is unsolved. Further, the representative administrator of the town stated that, there is no a problem of opening access as well as collector road in the cooperative housing areas; the problem is the material from which the road is constructed. Most of the roads in cooperative housing area were covered by earth road but some parts of the roads were covered with gravel by active participation of the community even if the quality is questionable. Beside, the quality all roads in cooperative housing do not have a drainage system. According to him the main reason for the inadequate provision of this basic infrastructure in cooperative housing areas of the town are the following.
Financial problem: The town is one of the fastest growing towns in Amhara regional state in east Gojjam zone, in terms of population. However, in order to meet the need of this fast growing population it needs a huge amount of budget but the amount of budget that allocated from the regional level as well as the finance that collect from the customers in the form of tax is much less than the expenditure for infrastructure development.
Lack of coordination between infrastructure provision organizations; beside the problem of finance, lack of coordination is the main challenge that face the area in infrastructure provision. Especially the interaction between infrastructure provision organizations is not in good way that brings adequate provision of infrastructure in all part of the town.
Bureaucratic bottleneck (cumbersome and time taking working procedures)
Generally, from the above interviews one can easily understand that there is a problem of water, road and electricity supply in cooperative housing sites of the town. This is due to financial problem, lack of coordination between infrastructure provision organization and concerned stakeholders, bureaucratic bottleneck manifest in the concerned office, absence of installation equipment and shortage of skilled man. Dola et al., (2015) in his literature also stated that, the provision of infrastructure is a prolonged process that involves financing, construction, and renovation that is involved in a multitude of agents, and the coordination between these different agents is a thereby challenge that affects the process of infrastructure provision at the global level. Beside, Olaseni and Alade, (2012) also stated that as the country’s population soars, demand for additional infrastructure in all sectors also increases. Unfortunately, the government resources can hardly meet the increasing demand, this make the provision of infrastructure inadequate. In addition, Demeke, (2006) also stated in his finding lack of coordination between different government organization especially the city administration and the infrastructure provision institution become the major challenge that hinder the provision of adequate infrastructure.
CHAPTER FIVESummary, Conclusions and RecommendationsIntroductionThis part of the research deals with the summary of the main findings for each research question, conclusion drawn from the analysis and the main findings and recommendation for action and further researches. The summary part compromise the key findings that were drawn from analysis and results of data collecting mechanism used in this study.
Summary of the main findings regarding – RQ 1 Based on the analysis and discussion made, the study comes up with the following main findings. The study found that the residents of the study area access potable water from different source of water with the majority access private connection. Hence, water is the vital and the basic source of life and no one can live without water, some of the sample households are facing some difficulties to access private pipe water connection. Beside the study found that absence of main water distribution line, financial problem and bureaucratic bottleneck are some of obstacles to access private connection. The study also found that there is the variation across the three cooperative housing sites in accessing private pipe water connection. Site one and site two cooperative housing sample households have better access to private pipe water connection than site three cooperative housing.
The study reviles that, the average water consumption level of sample residents (14.8 l/p/d) is below the international standard which 20 l/p/d recommended by WHO. Beside, the study found that there is variation in the daily water consumption level of cooperative housing residents across different water sources. Accordingly, households who access private connection have better amount of water consumed per day (15.6 l/p/d) than households who access water from private sellers (13.2 l/p/d). The study also found that households of cooperative housing in study area who do not have private pipe water connection frequently pay more for water consumption per month beside low amount of water consumption level as compeer to households who have private pipe water connection.
The study also found that the interruption of water supply in the one of the challenge in cooperative housing sites of the study area that is cause by shortage of water production and in some cases problems of water pipe line. The study found that cooperative housing sites in Kuy town are planned residential area without electricity supply. However, majority (75.2%) of the residents have access to electricity supply in the form of shared through renting per month from the nearby residential areas. Whereas those households who do not have access to electricity supply are largely depend on kerosene as source of lighting. The study also indicates that electricity consumption level of households who access electricity supply in the form of shared is low but they frequently pay more per month for electricity consumption service than those households who access private electricity supply in the town. It also found that continuous interruption of electric power due to the problem of electric lines and shortage of power is another problem in cooperative housing sites of the study area
The study found that there is no the problem of opening access as well as collector roads in the cooperative housing sites of the study area, the problem is the type of material from which the road is constructed, only 60.5% of them were access gravel road. It also found that the state of road both the earth and gravel roads are poor due to inadequate provision and absence of any maintenance service this forced to residents to access informal roads in some part of the area. Again, the study found that there is no drainage system along the road in the cooperative housing sites of the study area and this also contribute the poor state of the road. The study result also indentified that those households who locate above 2km from the main road access earth and informal road whereas households who locate up to 2km access both gravel and earth roads.
Summary of the main findings regarding – RQ 2Resident’s satisfaction refers to emotional response to a person about the existing water supply, electricity supply and road in the area; the positive or the negative feeling that residents have for the existing infrastructure. The study found that vast majority of respondents was satisfied with location of pipeline and quality of water (69.8% and 89.2%) respectively. Again, vast majority of respondents (77.5% and 64.3%) was dissatisfied with cost and continuity of water supply respectively. However, only 50.4% of them were satisfied with overall water supply in the area. On the other hand, the study found vast majority of respondents were not satisfied with source of electricity supply, cost, regularity and even 93.9% of them were dissatisfied with the overall electricity supply.
The result in this study also confirms that vast majority of households are satisfied only with road width but vast majority of them (70.1% and 79.8%) are dissatisfied with quality and maintenance service respectively. Vast majority (60.4%) of them were dissatisfied with the overall road infrastructure provision in the area. Beside, the study found that vast majority of households (66%) are not satisfied with the overall electricity, water and road infrastructure that exist in the study area
Summary of the main findings regarding – RQ 3The provision of Infrastructure is a prolonged process that involves financing, construction, and renovation that is involved in a multitude of agents, and the coordination between these different agents. The results in this study confirm that the provision of water, electricity and road infrastructure provision in the cooperative housing sites of the study area is not adequate due to different factors.
The study found that there is the problem of finance in infrastructure provision organizations to provide basic infrastructure and service in the study area. As the number of population who use basic infrastructure and service increases, the amount of budget that required meeting demand for basic infrastructure and service increase, as a result infrastructure provision organizations are facing the problem of finance to meet this demand. The study also identified that there is no coordination between infrastructure provision organizations as well as other concerned stalk holders in the process of basic infrastructure and service provision in the study area. Hence, the provision of urban infrastructure demands a great coordination between government agencies at city, state, national even at the local level. In addition, the study also confirm that there is the problems of shortage skilled man, bureaucratic bottleneck or cumbersome and time taking procedures which is highly manifests in of infrastructure provision organizations both at higher and lower level.
Based on the data analysis and major findings the following conclusions are made. The assessment has been made on three infrastructures (water, electricity and road) in the research. Therefore, the study found that there is a limitation in the provision of physical infrastructure in cooperative housing sites of the study area.
Concerning water supply, there is a problem of private water connection; only 58.9% of the total households in cooperative housing sites of the study area have private water connection. The remaining households are collect water from private sellers, public tab and shared pipeline as source of water, due to absence of main distribution line nearby, lack of money and bureaucratic bottleneck in water development office to get private connection. With regarding to water accessibility, the average water consumption of households who live in cooperative housing sites of the study area is 14.8% liter per person per day, which is less than the international standard. Besides, there is a variation in the average daily water consumption of households in cooperative housing sites of the study area with different water sources. Households who have private connection is better average water consumption than households who do not have private connection. Further, households who have private connection pay low cost for water for better amount of water than households who do not have private connection like public tab, shared pipeline and from private sellers. However, those who have neither private connection nor public tab are paying high cost to buy water in small amount from private sellers. Again, the distance between public tap and household residence is another problem in the area that forced households to collect from private sellers. Beside, continuous interruption of water is also another problem that the households of cooperative housing sites in the study area facing in their day-to-day activity. Shortage of water production and problem of water pipe lines are the major cause of water interruption.
Concerning electricity supply, cooperative housing sites are planned residential area without formal electricity supply installation. However, only 75.2% of the total households have access to electricity in the form of shared meter through renting per month from households who have private electricity supply in the nearby residential areas. Hence, households who do not have electricity supply, use kerosene, solar energy and portable battery as source of lighting. With regarding to cost of electricity consumption service, households who have access to shared electricity in the cooperative housing sites of the study area frequently pay high costs with low consumption than households who have access to private electricity supply in the town. Repeated electric power interruption of is also affecting residents of cooperative housing in the study area. The major causes of electricity interruption are problems of electric line and shortage of power.
Concerning road infrastructure, only 60.5% of total households in cooperative housing sites of the study area, have access to gravel road. The remaining households in the study area access earth and informal road to their houses. Beside, the state of road in the study area is poor it is difficult to move one area to other during the rainy season and it forced the residents to access informal road. This is due to inadequate provision, absence of maintenance and absence of drainage system. Again, the absence of drainage system is also another problem in cooperative housing sites of the study area.
Concerning satisfaction of dwellers with water, electricity and road infrastructure, households who live in the cooperative housing sites of the study area 50.4% of them were satisfied with the existing water infrastructure, but vast majority of(93.9%) of households are not satisfied with the existing electricity supply and 60.4% of households also dissatisfied with overall existing road infrastructure. Again, vast majority (66%) of households who live in cooperative housing sites in the study area are not satisfied with the overall water, electricity and road infrastructure.
Provision of urban infrastructure has become challenging in today’s world especially in developing countries. Similarly, the provision of basic infrastructure in cooperative housing sites of study are is not adequate due to different factors. These include problem of finance, lack of coordination between infrastructure provision organizations and other stakeholders, absence of equipments and bureaucratic bottleneck.
Based on the findings and conclusions that are made the following points are recommended to be carried out to improve the provision of basic infrastructure in cooperative housing sites of the study area. The recommendations are categorized in to four components of organizational, social, technical and financial measures.
Organizational measuresAdequate provision of infrastructure calls for an appropriate organizational set up for concerned office with clear division of tasks in line with the capacity of the actors. Coordination and effective communication is need between these organizations and other concerned stalk holders. Especially town administrator needs to be coordinating and communicating effectively with infrastructure provision organizations.
Beside, the experience of Zambia in infrastructure provision in the field of coordination especially the coordination between the local, regional, central government and even NGOs in the process of infrastructure provision for the poor and marginalized communities need to be considered. Hence, the local government is unable to meet the demand for infrastructure effective communication and support from regional and central government is necessary to provide basic infrastructure especially to provide electricity power supply in the cooperative housing sites of the study area. Beside, cumbersome and time taking working procedure (Bureaucratic bottleneck) that manifest in infrastructure provision organizations and in other concerned offices need to be addressed.
Social measuresThe need for the participation of private sectors and other stalk holders in the provision of water, electricity and road infrastructure in the cooperative housing sites of the study area to improve the provision of these basic infrastructures is important. Further, mobilizing the communities in the provision of basic infrastructure also need to be considered. Like some part of collector road that were covered by gravel through active participation of community, mobilizing and encouraging this community for further activity is important to cover the remaining roads with at least by gravel.
The experiences of Zambia in providing water and sanitation service for low-income community with the active participation of communities, beside the coordination between the local, regional, and central government, need to be taken into consideration. Hence, the community covers some part of the cost that needs to provide the infrastructure in addition to participating in planning and implementation activities.
Technical measuresImproving maintenance service and making the interruption scheduled to provide water supply by shift at a fair time gap have to be implemented to reduce the interruption of water. Beside, developing at least one public tab a round cooperative housing sites of the study area need to considered, to make residents accessible to water in nearby at low cost with better amount as compare to purchasing from private sellers
In the case of electricity power supply alternative source of lighting like solar energy need to be, consider for households who do not have access to electricity supply in a cost, which is affordable by the resident until the formal electric power supply installation is done. Because using kerosene as source of lighting may cause exploitation and it become a cause losses of property and lives.
Upgrading the existing earth and gravel road with locally available materials such as stone, gravel through labor based activities in order to improve the existing state of road. Because constructing infrastructure with locally available material reduce the cost of infrastructure than modern infrastructure materials even if the quality is different. Beside, constructing drainage system along the road networks in cooperative housing sites of the study area should be implemented. Even if the problem of finance is one of the challenges, constructing drainage system from earth with proper excavation along the road is the better way than constructing with cement and other materials.
Financial measuresFinancial problem is one of the factors that contribute for the poor development of basic infrastructure in cooperative housing sites of the study area. Hence, a certain measures need to be taken. The concerned organizations need to be focus on participatory fund raising activities from the residents as well as other private sectors. Again, the local and regional should support the concerned officials in finance. Beside the town administrator need to be, give priority when allocating budge for infrastructure provision organization to provide this basic infrastructure than the other government organizations since the development of water, road and electricity is the paved the way for other development. The tax which collect from the customers need to be collected in a proper way based the rule and regulation of tax collecting. Further, the concerned officials need to work in finding external fund from private sectors through creating development project even if this may take long time.
Recommendation for further researchThe problem of infrastructure is complex, which demands strategic way of problem solving. Hence, certain research conducted on a certain issues at all could not give the last solution and it needs further research. Therefore, the next researchers have to give emphasis for the role of community participation in basic infrastructure provision in housing, with the objective of improving basic infrastructure provision in housing through active community participation.
REFERENCEAbubakar Dardau.A, Owoicho.E ; Badiru, 2015. Factors affecting the provision of infrastructure in public-private partnership housing estate in Abuja, Nigeria. Journal of technology(Sciences;Engineering).
Adeoye, Olumaseyi, 2015. Challenges of urban housing quality:Insights and Experience of Akure,Nigeria.
Adenk Marieke, Butterworth John, Godfrey Sam and Abera Micheal,2016. Looking beyoned headline indicators:Water and Sanitaion service in small towns in Ethiopia.Journal of water, sanitaion and hygiene to development,P 453-446.
Amaha, T, 2016. Assessing cooperative- developer partnership for housing development: Acase of Semay-Tekes cooperative, Sarbet, Addis Ababa,MA.Thesis, Ethiopian Institute of Architecture, Building Construction and City Development (EiABC),Addis AbabaUniversity,Ethiopia.
Asmamew, S, 2000. Municipal management with particular referance to financial management of Debre Zeit municipality in Benishangul Gumuz, regional state, paper, Ethiopian civi service university.
Aziz, T, 2015. Analysis of accessibility of urban households to selected public service in Summit condominuim housing in Addis Ababa, MA.Thesis,Addis Ababa, university, Ethiopia .
Bekele, M ,2003. The impediment to cooperative housing in Amhara regional state;The case of Bahirdar city, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. Retrived from http://www.pdffilleter.com ed/project.htm.
Bryman, A, 2006. Integrated quantitative and qualitative research; How is it done? qualitative research, vol.6.
Central Stastical AgencyEthiopia(CSA) and ICF, 2017/16. Ethiopia demographic and health survey key findings, Addis ababa, Ethiopia and rockville,maryland,usa and ICF.
Chicago Mutual Housing, 2004. Affordable housing cooperatives conditions and prospect in Chicago.
Cotton, A ; Tayler, K, 2000. Service for the urban poor section4. Techinical guideline. WEDC, Loughborough Unviersity, UK.
Dawod, A, 2012. Self-help cooperative housing: Potentials and limitations as a housing delivery option, the case of Tana kebelle in Bahirdar city,MA.Thesis, Ethiopian Institute of Architecture, Builiding Construction and City Development (EiABC), Addis Ababa University,Ethiopia.
Demeke, H. A, 2006. Housing infrastructure for self housing construction in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia,MA.Thesis, Institute for Housing and Urban Development Studies,(IHS),Lund University,Lund.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Dep. ,2008. Infrastructure development in India, in Kumar,.N.(ed). International infrastructure development in East Asia.Towards balanced regional development and integeration.
Dola.K, M.A ; Joharimohd.Y, 2015. Challenges of coordination in the provision of urban infrastructure for new residential areas: The Iranian experience.
Durodola, D. O , 2016. Cooperative housing and basic infrastructure provision: A conceptual framework for effective public-private partnership.
Ethiopia, Wondimu, 2011. Rapid urbanization and housing shortage;The opportunity within the problem for Ethiopia. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
Fu, Megan, 2007. The role of housing cooperatives in the housing affordable crisis.
Habtie, Alemu, 2010. An assessment of urban housing supply and affordability in Jimma town, with special reference to condominium housing,MA. Thesis,Addis Ababa University,Ethiopia.
Housing and Infrastructure Development, 2015. Unpublished handout prepared for educational purpose at the department of Housing Development and Management, Institute of Urban Development Studies, Ethiopian Civil Service University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Ibem, E. O ; Aduwo, B, 2012. Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) in Urban Housing in Nigeria: Evidence from Ogun State. International Journal of Architecture and Urban Development (IJAUD, 2 (2) , pp 2-15.
Ibem, O. E, 2009. Community-led infrastructure provision in low-incom urban communities in developing countries: Astudy on Ohafia,Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 12(6), pp 125–132.
International Cooperation Alliance, 1995. Statement on the cooperative identity. Retrieved from http://www.gdrc.org/icm/coop-principles.html.
Kothari, C, 2004. Research methodology: Methods and techniques.
Mathenge, David, 2013. The challenges of infrastructure planning in urban slums case study of Kosovo, Math are four b, and Gitathuru slums in Mat hare valley, MA. Thesis, School of Built Environment University of Nairobi, Nairobi.
Melaku, Abebaw, 2015. Assessment of Water Loss in Water Supply Networks: Acase of Debre markos town, M.A. Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Mensah, O. S. ; Sanvie.B, 2013. Cooperative housing approaches in Europe; Hints for housing provision in Ghana. Journal of sustainable cities and society issue, vol 1. Retrieved from http://www.republication.com/ajscs/ajsas.html.
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development,2010. Growth and Transformation plan.
Ministry of Works and urban Development Federal urban Planning Institute, 2006. Integrated urban infrastructure and service planning manual, Addis Ababa,Ethiopia.
Nunnaly, J. (1978). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill
Olaseni ; Alade, 2012. Vision 20: 2020 and the challenges of infrastructure development in Nigeria. Journal of sustainable development vol 5 No_ 2.
Opeyemi Kolawole.M, Samson Aduewuyi.O, Gbenga, A and Olanrewaju.O, 2014. An Assessment of housing infrastructural provision in public housing; A case study of Bashorun housing estate Akobo, Ibadanoyo state, Nigeria. . International journal of civil engineering, construction, and estate management Vol 2. No3 , page 46-61.
Owolcho, E, 2011. An assessment of the provision of infrastructure under the public-private partnership housing scheme in Abuja, MA. Thesis, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
Pandey, P, 2015. Research methodology tools and techniques.
Public Health Protection,2000. Safe water supply vital to your health, Sweden.
Rajasekar.S and Chinnathambi, 2006. Research methodology.
Saunders,M,2000. Research methods for business students-5th edition.
Serageldin,Kim and Wahba, 2000. Decentralization and urban infrastructure management capacity.
Smith,GL and Lamba,FAC,2008. The challenges of infrastructure development in the eastern limb of the Bushed complex of South Africa.
Srinivasu, B. ; Srinivasa, R, 2013. Infrastructure development and economic growth prospect. Journal of business management and social science research, vol2, No1.
Tsion, G, 2016. Assessment of affordability and living condition of condominium housing in Addis Ababa, MA. Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Tomori, M. A, 2014. Housing and urban infrastructure development in Nigeria.
UN-Habitat III, 2015. Housing issues papers.
UN-Habitat, 2011. The Global Urban Economic Dialogue Series. Infrastructure for Economic Development and Poverty Reduction in Africa .
UN-Habitat, 2010. The right to adequate housing.
UN-Habitat, 2006. Options for Small Urban Centers in Developing Countries (nearly a third of the world’s population).
UN-Habitat, 2005. Framework for a national housing policy for Srilanka.
UN-Habitat, 2003. The challenges of slum.Global report on human settlement.
WHO, 2008. Progress on drinking water and sanitation: Special focus on sanitation. Joint Monitoring Programme for Water supply and Sanitation. Geneva: World Health organization, Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation. Geneva: World Health and New York: United Nations Children’s Fund.
Woka Paulinus, Ihuah, Ekenta, Chukwueweka and Nwokorie, Bartholomew. 2014. Impacts of inadequate infrastructure provision on real property Value: A comparative study of Agbama and Ehimiri housing estate, Umuahia, Nigeria. International Journal of Environment, Ecology, Family and Urban Studies (IJEEFUS)
World Bank Group, 2015. Ethiopian urbanization review; an urban institute for middle-income Ethiopia.
World Bank Policy Reasearch, 2004. Infrastructure service in developing countries; Access, quality, costs and policy reform.
World Bank Group, 2001. Decentralization and sub national regional economics.
Worku, I, 2011. Road sector development and economic growth in Ethiopia.EDRI working paper4. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Ethiopian development research institute.
Wubante, Fetene.A, 2012. Infrastructural services (water supply and sewerage systems): Problems and options for the provision and financing of it in Ethiopian cities; A case study on Bahirdar city, Bahirdar University, Ethiopia.
Yehuala, M, 2015. Assessing potable water supply and distribution problems of Rebu Gebeya town, Amhara regional state M.A. Thesis, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
Yirsaw, Z,2012. The problem of urban utility infrastructure provision in Ethiopia. The case of Bahirdar city, MA. Thesis, Ethiopian Institute of Architecture, Building Construction and City Development (EiABC), Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
Zakout, A,2006. Provision of infrastructure for low-cost housing development,MA. Thesis, Islamic University of Gaza, Palestine.