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1.1 Overview
This chapter presents historical background of the problem, problem statements, general objective, specific objectives, research questions, significance of the study and scope of the study. The chapter has provided a clear picture and needful of the research in Kilombero District.
1.2 Background of the study
Since the human race started to live in communities, societies have always had systems of helping members when they face disasters in life such as sickness, death of a breadwinner, adverse poverty or old age. This system is what referred to as social security (Ruparanganda et al., 2017). Traditionally family was the core and acted as the home as well as working place. Family acted as traditional form of social security when facing distress such as sickness, death, absence of food and old age.
Initially, family undertake adaptive in absorbing risk associated with poverty, social security focused in keeping people outs of poverty by providing a minimum income to meet basic needs. Society members would assist other members in such disasters as part of their customs, for instance children would support their parents in old age (Fulgeira, 2009). As life became increasingly complex due to urbanization and formalization of economic activities, this system became ineffective to a point that it was inevitable to institute new arrangements which would supplement the wearing system.
In the era the globalization and urbanization, the extended family has been weakened considerably and is no longer capable of shouldering that burden. At the same time, modern social protection introduced in many African economies have excluded large portion of the population in need of such protection (Otoo et al, 2012). The family was able to cover protection of its member perfectly nevertheless the new established form covered very few particular those who are in contractual relationship (employer-employee) while those employed in informal sector such as farmers are vulnerable to various risk such as sickness, injury, unemployment and old age since they are not covered with the social protection. The low coverage of social protection to informal sector that witnessed has been led by the transformation from the traditional form of social protection to new the new form of social protection.
The new arrangement is what we now refer to as formal social security system. One of the most recognizable aspects of the formal social security system are the retirement benefit schemes. In Tanzania, there are five retirement benefit schemes namely, National Social Security Fund (NSSF), PPF Pensions Fund (PPF), Public Service Pensions Fund (PSPF), LAPF Pensions Fund (LAPF) and GEPF Retirement Fund (GEPF). Moreover, there is a mandatory health scheme National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) for public servant, workmen’s compensation Fund Workers Compensation fund (WCF) and Community Health Fund (CHF) which coordinated in District council where member of the family contribute some amount and the government cover half of the contributions.
1.3 Statement of the Problem
The existing social security schemes currently cover few percent of the population, deemed low compared as compared to most low income countries, the social assistance is also limited to the rural population. Over the 90% of the population, including almost informal sector workers, the self- employed and the unemployed do not have protection in case of vulnerability to life contingencies, livelihood shock or severe deprivation (UN, 2015).
ILFS, 2014 states that peasants are 60% of workers in Tanzania. It is evidenced that in developing countries, where the majority of the population are in peasantry, where earnings cannot be guaranteed, are much vulnerable to shocks caused by life cycle changes, economic reforms and other types of events such as illness or bad weather conditions (Justino, 2003). The vulnerability to shocks of the people working in informal sector can be reduced by policies that protect their livelihoods, increase their human capital and assist them in times of crises, which is the role-played by social security funds.
Despite of the effort made by the Government of Tanzania through the social security schemes in ensuring every individual including workers in informal sector are covered with social protection, only about 4% percent of population are members of the pension funds. This is equivalent to 12.3% of the productive labour force (SSRA Annual Report, 2015/16). Moreover, membership of these social security schemes is composed of mainly formal sector workers. Most of the informal sector workers are not covered by the schemes; informal sector account only 14 percent of the total number of members under social security schemes in Tanzania, despite the fact that informal sector accounts for 87 percent of the population (Integrated Labour Force Surveys (ILFS, 2014).
The reason for poor coverage of informal workers in schemes is that most workers are employed in informal sectors or agricultural activities with low income and unstable income and have more needs that depend on the same savings obtain from their daily activities furthermore, these schemes are designed for wage based workers than those who are self-employed (Dorfman, 2015).
Despite of the fact that the Tanzania social security funds Acts provide an opportunity for social protection coverage to both formal and informal sectors, the large part of the working population in informal sector especially peasants is not reached by these schemes. Furthermore, most of the established social protection programmes did not involve workers in informal sector in understanding the exact need of social protection to informal sector population. It is from this background that this study aims to assess extension of social security to informal sector with a particular attention to farmers in Kilombero District, Morogoro, Tanzania. The study provides evidence on the awareness level on social security issues, income level of farmers in Tanzania and proposed suitable strategies to extend social security coverage to them.
1.4 Research Objectives
1.4.1 General objective
The general objective of the study is to assess extension of social security coverage to informal sector in Kilombero District.
1.4.2 Specific objectives
The following are the specific objectives:
i. To examine level of awareness of social security to farmers in Kilombero District
ii. To examine income level of farmers in relation to social security contributions in social security schemes;
iii. To propose means that can be used in increasing social security coverage in informal sector.
1.5 Research questions
The research answers the following questions:
i. To what extent farmers are aware of the social security issues.
ii. Are farmers ready to join pension schemes?
iii. Are farmers’ income sufficient to contribute to pension schemes?
iv. What strategies can be used in increasing social security coverage to farmers?

1.6 Significance of the study
Findings from this study provide an input to policy makers such as Social Security Regulatory Authority, the Government and other Social Security Stakeholders on how to address challenges in extending access to pension schemes to informal sector. Therefore, policy makers can use findings from this study in formulating appropriate measure for social security scheme to expand coverage to informal sector. The study adds to the existing literature, especially those relating with extension of social security/ protection to informal sector.
1.7 Scope of the study
The scope of the research is to explore social security coverage to informal sectors specifically farmers in Ifakara Town Council in Kilombero District, Morogoro region. Ifakarahas been chosen since it is one of the potential areas in Kilombero Valley for rice production and the large population of the area is vulnerable to social security coverage.

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2.1 Overview
The chapter encounters literatures that linked directly to the study. It begins with definition of terms, critical literature in respect of assessment of social protection to informal sector, theoretical review, empirical literature review, policy review, research gap and conceptual framework.
Review of the theories and literatures assisted in understanding knowledge gap in respect of social protection to informal sector in Kilombero District. Provided that social protection is not new in Africa at large, case study of Africa and other developing countries were used. The chapter provided clear understanding of the knowledge gap as well as roadmap of the study.
2.2 Definition of Terms
2.2.1 Social security
Various authorities (ILO, 1952; Ahmad; Burgess and Stern, 1991; Drèze, 1991; Guhan, 1994; Norton and Foster, 2001; Barrientos, 2002; and URT, 2003) have defined the term social security differently and thus, there is no commonly accepted definition of the term. Recently, some new concepts viz. social safety nets, social protection and social funds relating to social security have emerged. Social safety nets are measures to mitigate the negative effects of structural adjustments mostly in form of cash payments. Broadly, all these concepts are part of the all-pervasive term ‘social security (Barrientos, 2002).
Given the absence of an accepted definition, the temptation is to turn instead to the International Labour Organization (ILO, 2008), defines Social Security as the protection measures which society provides for its members, through a series of public measures against economic and social distress that would otherwise be caused by stoppages or substantial reduction of earnings resulting from sickness, maternity, employment injury, disability, old age, death, provision of medical care and subsidies for families with children.
Tanzania’s National Social Security Policy of 2003, for its part, refers to social security as any kind of collective measures or activities designed to ensure that members of the society meet their basic needs and their protection from contingencies to enable them to maintain a standard of living consistent with social norms.
2.2.2 Social Protection
Mahon et al. (2012) defined social protection as a set of policies and programmes seeking to reduce social and economic risk, to alleviate extreme poverty and deprivation, and to promote descent standard of living stemming in part from fair and equitable working standard standard.
2.2.3 Informal Sector.
Vanek et al. (2012) informal sector refers to employment and production that takes place in unincorporated small or unregistered enterprise; refers to employment without social protection. Furthermore Informal sector are activities conducted without employer and employee working relationship it involves activities such as agricultural activities, small businesses (entrepreneurship) activities, carpentry, fishing activities as well as livestock keeping. Informal sector is characterized by small scale production and are mostly operated in rural areas.
Informal sector workers are generally those with low incomes, or self-employed, working in a very small (unregistered) companies or the household sector, often on part-time basis (and migrant works) in industries such as agricultural, construction and services Hu, et al. (2009).

2.3 Critical Literature review
Norton and Foster (2001) Argued literature on social security does not reveal a clear and consistent definition of social security. They added that, Social security is not a fixed concept but reflects both similarities and varieties. Such similarities exist with respect to the list of social contingencies or risks (such as those relating to health, unemployment, old age, employment injury, death, etc) which are often referred to as the core element of social security.
Also Guhan, (1994) define social security fund as a steady income given to a person usually after retirement. Social security funds are typically payments made in the form of a guaranteed annuity to a retired or disabled employee. Some retirement plan designs accumulate a cash balance (through a variety of mechanisms) that a retiree can draw upon at retirement, rather than promising annuity payments. These are often also called pensions. In either case, a pension created by an employer for the benefit of an employee is commonly referred to as an occupational or employer pension. Labor unions, the government, or other organizations may also sponsor pension provision.
Social security to the workers would involve providing or framing such schemes or services or facilities and amenities which can enable the workers to lead a decent minimum standard of life and having financial/economic security to fall back upon in the event of losing job for whatsoever may be the reason in the circumstances beyond their control. The workers must be given the wages and other services that will enable them and the members of their family to lead a decent life. The social security is an instrument for social transformation and good governance (Johannes, 1999).
Occupational pensions from social security fund are a form of deferred compensation, usually advantageous to employee and employer for tax reasons. Many pensions also contain an insurance aspect, since they often pay benefits to survivors or disabled beneficiaries, while annuity income insures against the risk of longevity (Guhan, 1994). While other vehicles (certain lottery payouts, for example, or an annuity) may provide a similar stream of payments, the common use of the term pension is to describe the payments a person receives upon retirement, usually under pre-determined legal and/or contractual terms (Kay, 2001).
2.4 Theoretical review
The study used a Livelihood Portfolio Theory of Social Protection and efficient theories of social security in explaining and assessing social security (protection) to informal sector.
2.4.1 A livelihood portfolio theory of social protection
The theory states that individual and household maximize income under constraints, furthermore household face the risk of becoming poor at a certain point in the future, in other words, households are assumed to face the risk that they are not able to fulfill the needs of their members today as well as tomorrow. To prevent this risk from materializing, households smooth their consumption overtime, setting aside part of their resources to finance future consumption. Additionally, when it becomes that income will not suffice, household can seek alternative findings for the expenditure.
The Neubourg’s livelihood portfolio theory is characterized by five (5) welfare pentagon that are family, market, social network, membership institution and public authorities. Thus means individuals within the society need to access relevant institutions of welfare pentagon. For instance to obtain social security benefits, need access to public authorities that control benefits.
2.4.2 Efficiency theories of social security
The theories view creation of the social security programs as a full or partial solution to some market failure, it identify some market inefficiency and argue that social security is a way of regain optimality by alleviating this inefficient. One of the theory is social security as a welfare.
Its explanation focused on optimal redistribution, this theory of social security is based on the idea of market ‘fails’ to alleviate the poverty of the old (that is, it fails to generate an income/wealth distribution which is “socially accepted”), and the Government steps in to create social security programs that solves this problems. Further social security as an optimal risk sharing, under this interpretation social security is an arrangement made among ex ante individual to ensure each other against future unobservable labour productivity shock.
The study selected the theories since it enables the study to identify obstacles that hinder individual saving for future consumption especially when facing risk of not generating income in satisfying their needs as well as assessing individual access to relevant institutions and authorities such as pension’s funds in acquiring benefits. Furthermore, assessing the public authority’s effort in providing social protection to individual.
2.5 Empirical Literature Review
2.5.1 World Related studies
Ackson, et al. (2013) argued that pensions Scheme covers less than ten percent of the total labour force while majority of the labour force are not covered particular for informal sector in rural areas. The study was conducted by Tulia Ackson and Julianna masabo. The objective of the study was to gauge social security coverage to informal sector in rural areas. The study was conducted in Dar es Salaam City. The findings of the study were as follows; irregularities and uncertainties and seasonality of income in informal sector exclusion from the social security schemes. Secondly, social security schemes engaged more in employer-employee relationship for their members which made difficult for members from sector who have no employers. Thirdly, there is are differences between services offered by social security schemes and the informal sector workers that is schemes offers benefits which are not wants to informal sector such as long term benefits such as retirement, validity and survivors which are not priority to population in informal workers. Fourthly is inadequate of benefits offered by the established schemes falter extension of social security coverage to informal sector and the last reason is workers in informal sector are not aware with the core function and operations of the existing social security schemes. The social protection in Tanzania is not well coordinated and it makes difficulty for informal sector to access social security coverage and protection which cause the informal sector to be vulnerable related risk. The study provide the clear picture of the challenges that falter extension of social protection coverage to workers in informal sector, the study provided knowledge in weighing social protection coverage to farmers in Kilombero District and it will assist in proposing means that will foster social protection accessibility to farmers .
The paper presented in the Regional Integration in Africa, African Economic Conference (2013), the study was conducted by Regional Integration (EA), the objective of the study was to assess the role of informal sector in respect of social protection on regional integration (East African Countries). The study was conducted in Rwanda, the study used administrative data from Rwanda Social Security and National Statistic of Rwanda on determining workers in informal sector as well as questionnaire were circulated to 136 staff to Rwanda Social Security Board 165 motorcyclist in Kigali Rwanda where 11 respondent were selected. The study results was the low coverage for a large number of workers results from the type of labour and its low contributing capacity. Furthermore, the other challenge is informal sector coverage is lacking due to the inconsistencies of program design, the lack of appropriate incentives for enrolment and the inability of the state to enforce mandatory contributions. Summing up emphasize for strong will of pension reform should be made by the government in insuring informal sector is accommodated as well as implementing policy in extending social protection to targeted population of informal workers. The study is useful since it relate with the living environment and characteristics of population of informal workers in Kilombero District. The acquired experience from Rwanda enabled the study to highlight healthier ways in overcoming the challenges.
Dorfman (2015) argued that contributory schemes in most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) cover only a small fraction of the labor force or working-age population. The study of pension pattern in sub-Saharan Africa conducted by Mark Dorfman of the Pensions and Social Insurance Global Solutions group in the World Bank’s social protection and labour global practice and inputs was received from the Montserrat Pallares-Miralles. The study were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria, Uganda, Zambia, and Kenya as a pilot areas. The study has two objective the first objective was to take stock of sub-Saharan Africa pension and social security policies, programs, parameters and enabling and the second objective was to initiate the first step of diagnostic assessment of the key challenges facing these pensions and social security systems. The sample population that were used were both urban but the study focus in rural areas where a large number of informal sector is found particular farmers. The key findings of the study are; mandatory contributory schemes, civil service schemes and occupational schemes cover less than 10 percent of the labor force in about two-thirds of countries for which we have data. About a quarter of countries have coverage rates of between 10 percent and 20 percent, and four countries have coverage rates substantially above 20 percent. Median labor force coverage was about 7.3 percent. Secondly, he pointed-out that low coverage level is an outcome of the system itself that contributory pension schemes were designated for wage-based workers and so may be insufficiently aligned with realities of workers in the informal sector or agricultural without steady income. The Results reflect the challenges that the social security system in Tanzania is facing. Rural population is highly disintegrated from the social security systems.
The study recommended the following; Option to increase coverage require multiple revisions in designs, implementation and institution support, mandatory contributory Schemes could be extended to small firm and self-employed but need affordable contributions rates so that small businesses and low income employees can participate. The piloting of matching contributions for poorest could also be considered. Secondly, strengthening voluntary savings arrangements can be an important policy option for improving coverage and adequacy. Such arrangement could supplement mandatory schemes or could form the anchor for contributions old-age income protection that could then be supplemented by non-contributory such as those in southern Africa. Thirdly, careful attention must be paid to enabling the information and communication infrastructure and quality of governance regulation and supervision. Lastly principles to consider for reform including measures to improve coverage, protect the elderly, poor, and better align pension design with needs and enabling conditions including the needs of rural and informal sector workers. The study depict the real situation in rural Tanzania, the study enabled the study to have a wide range of assessing the reality of social protection in Kilombero District and come up with better way of recommending ways to accessibility of social protection.
Adzawla, et al. (2015), the study was conducted by William adzawla, Shaibu Azumah Baanni , the objective of the study was identify the factor that influenced informal sector workers’ into pension scheme as well as contributions levels. Heckman two stages adopted in analyzing the data, data were collected from 150 respondents in the Tamale Metropolis area in Ghana. The study-highlighted factors that hinder extension of social security coverage to informal sector as follows; firstly, irregular flow of income of informal sectors workers. Secondly, low confidence to schemes, informal workers are do not trust this led to low membership to schemes, thirdly, difficulties to trace office informal sector office in respect of transferring social security issues and information and lastly informal sectors workers have low knowledge of social security scheme and all related issues. Apart from the mentioned factors, the study revealed that highly educated and higher income workers have a higher probability to the informal sector pension schemes.
Most of social security interventions are scale neutral, available to all, but in the case of pension scheme until recent times, more efforts targeted the formal sector workers. This may be due to the fact that informal sector worker’s income is not regulated by an agency that makes it difficult to make pension contribution mandatory as in the case of the formal sector workers. The aforementioned factors are most factors that revealed by respondents during the study. The study concluded that policy maker should add more effort to improve and manage social security schemes to workers in informal sector and to encourage workers to continue their membership in schemes to protect themselves from the social and economic distress. The study is useful since it offers directly related to environment and situation of farmers in Kilombero District, the acquired knowledge offered a wide understanding in proposing ways in accessing social security services to farmers in Kilombero District.
Ugula (2013) argued that social security schemes advertisements does not reach to rural areas which increase low knowledge in social security issues, the study was conducted by Kitandu Paulo Ugula, the objective of the study was to examine competitiveness of social security schemes in Tanzania in increasing membership coverage. The study was conducted in Dar es Salaam and Dodoma regions where a researcher visited Headquarters of both Scheme. The study used purposive sampling and 219 respondents were involved in the study, data analyzed and presented in tables. The findings from the study are as follows; many sensitization activities are conducted by all schemes, however, the mostly used means is television which is more used in urban than in rural areas and the last point is legal framework is the factor that increase social security coverage to both formal and informal sector. The study concluded that sensitization of social security issues should not exclude informal sector particular in rural areas. If conducted well it will increase social security knowledge to farmers. The study portrayed what is found to farmers in Kilombero District which will assist in providing better means in increasing membership of farmers in social security schemes.
2.6 Policy review
The Tanzanian Social Security Policy (2003) acknowledged that social security means any kind of collective measures or activities designed to ensure that members of society meet their basic needs and are protected from the contingencies to enable them maintain a standard of living consistent with social norms. Moreover, every human is vulnerable to risk and uncertainties with respect to income as a means of life sustenance, to contain these risk everyone needs some form of social security guaranteed by the family, community and society as a whole.
In most developing countries like Tanzania, their formal social security systems are a product of colonialism. During the colonial era, the Tanzanian social security coverage was extended to few people who were in the colonial employment and most of people were excluded from any type of Public social security Scheme. The excluded group depended upon the traditional social security systems for their protection, which is still the case to date, though the urbanization and economic situations weakened the system and community become vulnerable to uncertainties in respect of income as a means of sustenance.
After independence, the Government of Tanzania introduced a series of policies and measures to reverse the situation that prevailed during the colonial era. The measures included access to free education and healthcare, provision of social welfare services to marginalized groups such as the elderly, people with disabilities and children in difficult circumstances, as well as establishment of statutory social security schemes.
The Tanzanian social security systems categorized by contributory and noncontributory schemes. Coverage of these contributory schemes is limited to workers who employed in formal employment compared to self-employed (informal sector), which is small in relation to working population in employment. Furthermore, benefits is limited mostly to old age, death, survivors, invalidity, maternity and workmen’s compensation and the levels of benefits are low.
For non-contributory system (social assistance) which are provided by Government, NGOs and donors, its difficult to identify the exactly number of people benefited from the services delivered due to nature of services delivery method.
The Social Security Policy (2003) has identified number of challenges that the Social Security system is facing. Despite of the presence of different framework and efforts made by Government, service delivery has not reached the majority of Tanzanians mostly in rural areas due to inadequate financing and fragmented institutional arrangements. The existing social security system has many shortcomings that include low coverage of the Tanzanian Society, fragmentation of legislation, lack of regulatory framework, lack of a mechanism and inadequacy of benefits provided. At present, the large number of population engaged in informal sector especially farmers are less covered with social security schemes and most of workers (mostly in rural) are unaware of the existence of the pensions schemes and benefits offered by these Schemes, as this become a key hindrance factor that limits and minimize coverage of social protection to community.

2.7 Research gap
Hu, et al. (2009) suggested that there is a gap between the current schemes and informal sector involvement in joining social security schemes. Studies observed that Pension reform around the world in recent decades has mainly focused on the formal sector employer-employee relationship. Consequently, many of those working in the informal sector have been left out of the structured arrangements, particularly in developing countries, a serious problem given this group are often low income earners, vulnerable to various risk. Therefore, the study seeks to find out challenges and hindrance factors for farmers in Kilombero District to join social security schemes.
2.8 Conceptual Framework of the Study
From the above diagram of the conceptual framework the first three points (awareness of social security to farmers, level of income of farmers and means used in increasing membership) are independent variables, the middle points (obstacles and increased awareness) are dependent variables and the last (increased number of members in social security Fund) is the outcome.
Figure 2.1: Conceptual Framework of Extension of Social security coverage to farmers

The above conceptual framework figure depict that the increase of awareness of social security to farmers, the use of the preferable means of transferring social security messages will increase knowledge of social protection to farmers and intervene the obstacle which led to extension of social security membership to farmers in Kilombero District.
With the aforementioned support of the conducted studies and theories, the study acquired inputs, skills and knowledge convenient to the study in delivering and imparting awareness to community, scholars and decision makers as well as proposing suitable ways to be used in increasing social protection coverage to uncovered farmers in Kilombero District. Thus, the study was able to pursue various initiatives that are useful in increasing social security coverage to farmers in Kilombero District.

3.1 Overview
This chapter depict the clear This section presents the research design and area of study, data sources, sampling techniques and procedures, data collection methods, questionnaires administration, data quality, validity and reliability of the data and analysis method.
Due to eminence of the designed methodology prepared and used during research activities, the chapter enabled the study to come up with the accurate results regarding social protection coverage to farmers in Kilombero District that can be useful to policy maker and decision makers within or outside the Government in increasing social protection coverage.
3.2 Research Design
As defined by Kothari (1990), a research design is an arrangement of conditions for the collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. Research design constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. Both desk research and field research were employed. The study used both quantitative and qualitative method.
3.3 Study area
The study was conducted in Kilombero District Council in Morogoro region, the District is located southern –western Tanzania, 395 kilometers from Dar es Salaam City and 472 kilometers from the Capital City Dodoma. . As of 2016 the District has a total population of 475, 325 (Wilson et, al., 2017). Recently Kilombero Valley is one of the largest growers of rice in the region and the nation at large. Population in the area depend much on the informal sector activities such as small-scale farming, fishing and small businesses (entrepreneurship). Rice farmers in Kilombero are among of the well-organized farmers through different groups and large number of population engaged in small-scale agriculture. Farmers are organized into different sub-groups that are within the same village or ward, some of the groups are Tupendane group, Kikwawila Farmers Association, Upendo group, Amani group and Tangini AMCOS. District Cooperative Registrar administers all of the Cooperative Associations; the Registrar is responsible in administering the associations, providing trainings on agricultural activities to farmers, consultations and supporting farmers by providing loans from stakeholders within and outside the District. The selected area was more preferable since large portion of population is engaged in small-scale rice farming and the population is more vulnerable to social and economic distress due to low social protection coverage.
3.4 Population of the study
The study involved a total hundred (100) famers from the five villages in Ifakara Town Council, Kilombero District respondents were described as per their demographic distribution in respect of age, sex, education level as well as economic status. Interview were conducted to farmers through the designed questionnaire for those who were willing to participate. For respondents participated were positive with the study and they provided useful information and for those who were not ready the study chose other respondents for interview.
This Research focused on workers of informal sector targeting farmers in Ifakara Town Council in Kilombero District where a large number of populations engaged in agricultural activities especially in rice farming.
3.5 Sampling and Sample size
In order to be more objective and get sensible results, the study interviewed 100 farmers from five (5) villages in Kilombero district who are involved in rice farming. Both purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used. The study used purposive sampling due to its wide range of farmers and their multiplicity in demographic distribution. Since each respondent has an equal chance to be chosen, simple random sampling was used to select five (5) villages that are potential in rice production, 20 rice farmers.
3.6 Data Collection Methods and Techniques
The study used both secondary and primary data. The primary was most preferably where data collection was done through interviews by using questionnaires with close and open questions, where farmers were interviewed using face-to-face technique. When necessary secondary data were used to support statistical data and to broaden the discussion. Structured questionnaire and open where farmers were interviewed using a face-to-face technique. Where necessary secondary data were used just to provide statistical data and broaden the discussion.
Furthermore, in administering the questionnaire, the researcher was the one involved in data collection work in order to ensure that data are captured correctly.
3.7 Data Analysis Methods
The questionnaire was analyzed using a special computer package for data analysis, specifically Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The advantage of this package is that it can be used to analyze questionnaires with many questions including both closed ended and open-ended questions (Kothari, 1985). The statistical package was used to determine frequency in order to analyze the number of respondents belonging to each variable in the SPSS charts and table were used to present the analysis. Presentation of findings are in Tables and figures/charts.

3.8 Validity and Reliability of data
3.8.1 Validity of Data
Validity refers to the extent to which a test measures what we actually wish to measure (Kothari, 2004). Validity concerns with correctness of data in research. Validity occurs when researcher check certain procedure to check for the accuracy of the research findings. In ensuring correctness and accuracy of the data collection instruments, a pilot study was conducted in Rufiji District where 20 respondents were involved. Results, comments and observations were used in altering the questionnaire before actual data collection.
3.8.2 Reliability of Data
Reliability refers to a measurement that supplies consistence results with equal values; it measures consistency, precision, repeatability, and trustworthiness of a research (Mohajan, 2017). The findings of the study considered reliable if consistence result have been obtained in identical situation but different circumstances. There are two types of reliability external and internal reliability. External reliability refers to the extent to which independent researchers can produce a study and obtain result similar to those obtained from the original study over time. On the other hand internal reliability measures consistence within the study. There are several method for estimating existence of internal consistence, perhaps Cronbach Alfa is the most widely used method in measuring reliability (Cronbach, 1951). In measuring internal consistency of the study, Cronbach’s Alfa was used in analyzing data. Matta. et al. (2016) pointed cutoff points for inferring adequate internal consistency and interpreting of interrater reliability coefficient were set at 0.70 for Cronbach’s Alfa, proposed ranges were defined as follows; ;0 (poor); 0 to 0.20 (slightly); 0.21 to 0.40 (fair); 0.41 to 0.60 (moderate); 0.61 to 0.80 (substantial) and 0.81 to 1.00 (almost perfect)

3.9 Ethical consideration
ACFID (2016) stated that ethical research principles are about relationship between researchers (those who conduct research) and the research participants, the study outlined values underpinning ethical research and evaluation. Among them are; respect for human beings which represents recognition of intrinsic value, opportunity for human being to exercise their autonomy, respondents honoring the rights, privacy dignity, entitlements and diversify to those contributing to research. Giving participants the choice to voluntarily participate in the research process. Secondly is Beneficence, this implies that research process should be viewed as an intervention with its own impact and consequences, that it should carry a commitment to support and empowerment, moreover, research should not harm participants during or after research emotionally, socially, politically, psychologically and culturally. Thirdly is research merit and integrity, research deemed to have merits if its meets relevant quality criteria, meeting relevant criteria means that the research demonstrates alignment between the aims, questions, methodology and methods and these are appropriate to the research context including its culture and values and taking into account intercultural differences. Research integrity implies commitment to genuine search of knowledge and understanding following recognized principles of honest research conduct. Lastly principle is justice, refers to fair process for recruitment of research participants, no unfair burden of participation on particular group and fair distribution of and access to the benefits of participation in research, treating all participants with dignity regardless of gender, age, race, ethnicity, ability and culture. Ensuring that all relevant social group actively included in research, and that attempts are made to avoid further marginalization, discrimination and exclusion of underrepresented social group.
In this study, before conducting research activities in the identified areas, consultation was made to authoritative of Kilombero District where consent to conduct research was requested through the introduction letter from the Open University of Tanzania. Request letters were issued to District Executive Director (DED), District Administrative Secretary (DAS) and Village Executive Officers (VEOs); hence, they mutually permitted continuation of research in respective villages. Respondent were requested voluntarily to participate in research, all were given equal opportunity participate in the research activity regardless of status, gender, age, race ability as well as religion and they were informed impact of the study. All information collected from the study are confidential.

4.1 Introduction
This chapter presents findings and data presentation collected from the research by responding to research’s hypothesis on the assessment of social protection for informal sector by answering the four questions. The analysis starts with the demographic status to characterize the respondents.
4.2 Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents
This part of the research findings shows characteristics of the respondents on the conducted research. The demographic characteristics have been shown in respects of age, sex and education level of the respondents. These characteristics will be linked seeing its implication in joining social security schemes.
4.2.1 Age and Sex of the Respondents
From the data obtained from the research, it was established that ages were grouped into 6 groups as shown on the table below. The highly participated group in research; are age group of 25-29 and 30-34 both groups participated 22 frequently equivalent to 22% each, and the lowest participated group was the age group below 18 years which occurs 10 frequently equivalent to 10%. Table 4.1 indicates age and sex of the respondents. Furthermore figure 4.1 depicts rate of age group of respondents participated in the research.
Table 4.1: Age and sex of the respondents
Variables Category Frequency Percentage (%)
Age Under 18 10 10%
19-24 14 14%
25-29 22 22%
30-34 22 22%
35-39 11 11%
Above 40 21 21%
Total 100 100%
Sex Male 62 62%
Female 38 38%
Total 100 100%
Source: Field data collected (2017)
Figure 4.1 age group of the respondents

Source: Field data collected (2017)
4.2.2 Education of the Respondents
The study established that 47% of the respondents have acquired primary education level, 23% of respondents acquired secondary education level and 19% did not completed primary education, 6% have not completed secondary level and 2% acquired university level. The results of the research implies that individuals with low education level conduct agricultural activities. The table below shows level of education of the participants.

Table 4.2: Education level of the Respondents
Education level Frequency Percentage (%)
Did not complete primary education 19 19%
Primary Education level 47 47%
Completed Secondary Level (form 1-6) 23 23%
Secondary level but did not finish O-level 6 6%
University Level 2 2%
Others 3 3%
Total 100 100%
Source: Field data collected (2017

4.2.3 Respondent’s Membership of Social Security Fund
Random sampling technique that was used during the study, came-up with respondents who are members of the social security schemes and those who are non-members of the schemes. The findings indicate 74% of respondents are not members of the social security schemes while 26% of respondents are members of the of the social security funds (Figure 4.1). This indicates that only few large portion in rural areas of Tanzania are not covered with social protection.
Figure 4.2: membership status of the respondents in Social Security Schemes

Source: Field data collected (2017)
4.3 Discussions of Research Questions
4.3.1 To what extent farmers are aware of the social security issues.
The idea behind the research question was to establish the extent to which farmers in Kilombero district are aware on social security issues. The analysis from the data collected from the field shows that 61% of the respondents have heard issues related to social security, while only 39% of the respondents are not aware and have not heard social security issues.
Table 4.3: Farmers awareness (heard/know) on social security issues
Response Frequency Percentage (%)
Yes 61 61%
No 39 39%
Total 100 100%
Source: Field data collected (2017)
In comparing with empirical studies, findings from the study shows large portion have heard social security issues concisely and 39% have never heard of social security. The study is merely agreed with other studies, Ugula (2013) argued that rural areas have low knowledge on matters relating to social security matters since information regarding social security reach mostly in urban areas compared to rural areas. Moreover, Ackson et al., (2013) added that most farmers in rural areas have low knowledge in respect of core function and operation of the social security schemes which led to low coverage in social security schemes
4.3.2 Are farmers ready to join pension schemes?
The question intended to gauge the readiness of famers in joining the social security scheme for social protection. Findings from the study established that excluding those are already members of the Scheme, 53% of respondents are not ready and are unwilling to join social security Schemes while 47% of the respondents are willing to join social security schemes. The figure below shows percentage of the respondents.
Figure 4.3: Willingness to join any social security in the country

Source: Field data collected (2017)
For respondents who indicated unwillingness to join the social security scheme, 63% of the respondents did not have any clear reason for not joining any social security schemes. This shows that farmers in rural areas are unawareness of the core functions and operations of social security schemes. Few of them mentioned lack of education regarding social security and the other reason is they are not interested with the social security scheme. This implies that there is urgent need to undertake a serious campaign in order to influence farmers in rural area to join the social security schemes scheme.

Figure 4.4: Reasons for not joining social security scheme

Source: Field data collected (2017)
Furthermore, it was established that farmers are not aware of the benefits offered by the social security scheme seems not to be clear to most of the respondents interviewed. The analysis shows 52% of the respondents do not expect any benefits when joining any of the social security scheme. It draws conclusion that individual are not aware with the benefits that are offered by the existing schemes as well as the offered benefits are not beneficial to workers in informal sector particular farmers. The figure below shows the expected benefits from the schemes.
Comparing findings of the study with empirical research in respect of willingness to join social security schemes. The findings from the research reveals that 53 percent of the respondents are not ready in joining social security schemes, the result from the study agrees with Adzawla et al., (2015) claiming that informal sector workers have low confidence with the social security schemes on the services provided with schemes as well as benefits offered by the schemes does not fit needs of the informal sector workers. For informal sector workers to join social security schemes service offered should be customized and directly fit and satisfy farmers’ needs of social protection.
Figure 4.5: Expected benefits of joining social security schemes

Source: Field data collected (2017) Gender and willingness to join any social security scheme
In analyzing the issue of willingness to join social security scheme with respect gender, the findings indicate that for those who were not members of social security schemes, males were more willingly to join social security schemes than females.
The challenge of gender participation in social protection become significant in increasing social protection coverage. United Nations Development programs publication (2017) claimed that women in Tanzania are not full empowered, results from the findings indicate that 52 per cent of the total female population are disempowered compared to 24 per cent of the male population. Moreover, women working in informal sector are therefore doubly vulnerable; they often have a greater need for social protection compared to their male counterpart. Figure 4.6 below depict gender response in joining social security schemes. Furthermore, UN (2009) report stated that women are caught in paradoxical situation work hard to care and protect their families all their lives, the particular nature of many society does not give equal treatment in social protection when they need help from either informal institutions or formal system.
Figure 4.6: Willingness to Join Social Security Schemes with Respect to Gender

Source: Field data collected (2017) Education level and willingness of joining social security schemes
Findings from the study established that large portion of respondents who are not members of social security schemes have low level of education (primary education) and very few have reached middle level of education and high level (degree holders). The Analysis from the collected data indicate that willingness of joining social security schemes has nothing to do with the level of education of the respondents. In line with data collected from the field, it was established that large percent of farmers who are not members of the schemes with primary education level are willing to join social security schemes compared to those with middle and high level (university) of education. Figure 4.7 shows relationship between level of education and willingness of joining social security schemes
Figure 4.7. Education level and willingness of joining social security schemes

Source: Field data collected (2017)
The findings from the research indicates that farmers with low education level are more willing to join social security schemes compared to farmers with middle and high educational level, this indicate that level of education is not an obstacle for individuals to join social join social security schemes.
From the above analysis, it was established that more than 50% of farmers are not ready in joining the social security schemes though there is no clear reason for farmers not to join social security schemes. Moreover, education level does not limit farmers in joining social security schemes since large percent of farmers who are willing to join social security schemes have low level of education compared to those with high level of education.
4.3.3 Are farmers’ income sufficient to contribute to pension schemes?
Findings from this study reflects the FAOs, (2012) results where the majority of farmers who farm in unorganized groups in most developing countries are smallholders with low level of income. However, for organized group such as Kilombero rice farmers seems to generate relatively high income compared to unorganized group. The analysis has shown that 56% of the respondents have the income that ranges from 10000 to 20000 per day, which indicate that the majority of the respondents live above the poverty line (1 USD). The analysis shows that farmer’s income could be sufficient to contribute to social security schemes when other factors are kept constant.
Table 4.4 Average daily income of the respondents
Income in TZS Per day Frequency Percent
below 2000 1 1%
2000-10000 17 17%
10000-20000 56 56%
20000-50000 25 25%
above 50000 1 1%
Total 100 100%

Source: Field data collected (2017)

Findings from the study is also in line with the study conduct by Regional Integrated in Africa paper (2013) claiming that large portion of informal sector in rural population have low contributing capacity. Farmers have unstable income and their basics needs which are also more depends on the income generated from their activities. However, the analyzed data from the research shows that more than 50 percent of the respondents have ability to contribute to social security schemes since their daily income exceeded the poverty line.
4.3.4 What strategies (preferred means) that can be used in increasing social security coverage to farmers?
Table 5.3 below indicate that 50 percent of the respondents have heard social security issues through radio and television while 39 percent did not know anything about social security. Other channels are family/friends (6%), newspaper (2%) and others (3%). From the data observed, radio and television are means that can be used to increasing social security coverage in informal sector.
Table 4.5: Channels respondents heard about social security
Channels Frequency Percentage (%)
radio/ television 50 50%
Newspaper 2 2%
family/ friends 6 6%
Others 3 3%
None 39 39%
Total 100 100%
Source: Field data collected (2017)
Furthermore, the analysis has shown that, large portion of the respondents prefer radio (35%) as their means of being educated about social security schemes followed by phone (26%). Television (17), newspapers (3%) and other means (2%) follows as the preferred means of educating farmers about social security schemes (Table 4.6). Social security institutions are advised to use the preferred means to educate farmers about social security schemes.
Table 4.6 Means preferred to be used in educating social protection issues
Preferred means Frequency Percentage (%)
Nil 17 17%
Radio 35 35%
phone/message 26 26%
Television 17 17%
Newspapers 3 3%
Others 2 2%
Total 100 100%

Source: Field data collected (2017)
Generally, radio, phones, and television were mentioned to be the most preference ways of information delivery methods to rural areas. Getting. This means that Schemes should use the same preferred information delivery ways to rural population in transferring social security messages to farmers.
The findings from the study is supported by observation established by Ugula (2013), that social security schemes used mostly television as the means in transferring social security messages which is limited to rural population. The analysis from the study indicate that farmers prefer more radio and phones/ messages in receiving social security messages, other means such as television and newspaper are merely used by individuals due to its accessibility. The study is directly agree with the findings from the previous study.

5.1 Introduction
This part of the chapter represent summarize of the overall results of the research in line with the objectives and research questions of the study (core of the study), the chapter will also draw the recommendations based on the established findings of the research in relation to other conducted studies.
5.2 Summary
5.2.1. To examine level of awareness of social security to farmers in their respective areas
The analysis shows that farmers have heard about social security messages but large percent of farmers are not aware of the roles, core functions and operations of the Social Security Schemes. As a results, extension of social security coverage is very limited to workers in informal sector particular famers in Kilombero District. The Social Security Scheme have not address and perform well their roles and operations particularly in rural areas where a large population of the country is settled.
Experience from other author regarding challenge of awareness has been noted by Mnyamba (2017) revealed that one of the factor is lack of Knowledge about the availability of voluntary contributory plans and eligibility of informal workers for these schemes, generally rural agricultural population have low level of education and limited access to information. Furthermore, Saqwale (2012) narrated that social protection schemes face shortcoming that many of potential beneficiaries are not aware of the schemes and the constraints related more to implementation ad control mechanics.

5.2.2. To examine income level of farmers in relation to social security contributions
It was observed that poverty is not the main cause for farmers to join Social Security Schemes; the analysis shows majority of farmers interviewed mentioned to earn average daily income of between Tzs 10,000 and 20,000, which implies that standard of living is above the poverty line of 1USD. Therefore, the extent of poverty does not limit extension of social protection to farmers in Kilombero District.
Moreover, seasonality of income in the informal sector also challenge extension of social security coverage to farmers in Kilombero District. Thus led to uncertainty and unreliability of income may impair their membership, contributions and qualifications for benefits of those that are willing to join the schemes.
The finding from the study is in line with the observation by ILO (2015) that many informal sector operators and workers are indeed poor, but available empirical evidence has shown that the informal sector as a whole is not synonymous with poverty. It has a highly heterogeneous structure: the very poor are engaged in subsistence activities at the bottom of the ladder, while at the top there are very profitable economic ventures. In many cases those active in the latter earn incomes well above the minimum wage in the formal sector of the economy. Therefore, the assertion of poverty in informal sector is not an obstacle in contributing social security schemes.
5.2.3 Are farmers ready to join pension schemes?
Furthermore, it was established that inadequate benefits offered by the existing schemes is another reason that discourage extension of social security coverage to the informal sector. The reason could be benefits offered by these Schemes are based on formal sector mostly (those who are employed) while informal sector rely on the same system which differ to formal sector in terms of activities and operation.
The large proportion of farmers who were willingly to join social security scheme were mostly skewed towards men compared to women. It was further evidenced that willingness of joining social security schemes has nothing to do with the level of education of the respondents.
In respect of willingness to join social security schemes, Adzawla et al., (2015) claimed that informal sector workers have low confidence with the social security schemes on the services provided with schemes as well as benefits offered by the schemes does not fit needs of the informal sector workers. For informal sector workers to join social security schemes service offered should be customized to benefits informal sectors workers.
5.2.4 To propose means that can be used in increasing social security coverage in informal sector
The analysis has shown that the rural population prefer more the usage of radio, phones and television as a means of receiving news and information daily. These means are more useful compared to other means such as newspaperand other sources. As per data collected from the field, the analysis depicted that social security messages have been heard via the same aforementioned means though in a minimal rate. These means are more useful for transferring social security messages since the messages will reach to farmers’ respectively.
The means used to transfer social security knowledge is a determinant factor in increasing social security coverage. Ugula (2013) claimed that the television advertisement as the main source of sensitization used by social security schemes in transferring social security messages which is limited to rural population. Thus, social security messages does not reach to large portion of informal sector in rural population.
5.3 Implication of the findings
The research findings indicated that large number of farmers are not members of social security scheme. As a result, most farmers are likely to be vulnerable and exposed to risk when facing contingency such as old age, sickness and disability that reduce ability to work in meeting their basic needs, which will increase dependency ratio of the population to the Government. In more particular, women who are mostly familiar taker were observed to be more vulnerable to unforeseeable risks due to gender bias issue and women’s subordination just because of skewed allocation of economic resources, a point commonly emphasized in most literature on gender and social security.
5.4 Recommendations
Social protection is the right of every citizen as per Tanzania Constitution of 1977 regardless of the sector (formal or informal) that an individual is working to earn their income to satisfy their needs. However, findings from this study indicate that most of famers in rural areas are not member and others are not even aware of the benefits of these social security schemes. In this regards, there is an urgent need to increase the speed of awareness program to farmers. This can be done through the institutions responsible for social protection such as SSRA, Social Security Funds and other organization. Awareness should focus on the role of Social Security Schemes, operation of the Schemes, benefits offered by Schemes and benefits of joining Social Security Schemes. Awareness programs will increase awareness to farmers that will led large number of farmers to join Social Security Schemes.
Furthermore, the analysis shows that large portion of respondents prefer radio and mobile phone as a means of receiving different information and message. The Social Security Institutions (SSRA and Schemes) should use the same means of communication in transferring social security awareness programs and messages to farmers as observed from the analysis. This will enable transfer of social security message to large portion of farmers.
The Social Security Schemes should design benefits that fits to informal sector, particularly famers. The current benefits that are offered by Schemes are mostly centered for workers in formal sector. The designed benefits should directly touch farmers in relation to nature of their activities of those are working in informal sector. This will attract farmers to join Scheme and increase membership to Social Security Funds.
5.5 Limitations and Suggestion for Further Studies
This study assessed the extension of social security coverage to informal sector in Kilombero District. Due to time and resources constraints only 100 farmers were interviewed in five villages. Furthers study can be expended to cover other districts in Tanzania. Also, the study which will expand the coverage beyond farmers are encouraged, particularly those who are working entrepreneurs, fisheries, ‘mama ntilie’ and other activities that falls under informal sector activities.


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